June 26, 2009
Serious Games: References, Resources and TemplatesThis is part of a series of posts on Serious Games. To read the whole series, see the first section: What is a game?
References, Resources, Templates
Games and Education in General
- Ahdell, Rolf and Andresen, Guttorm. Games and simulations in workplace eLearning: How to align eLearning content with learner needs (Study that seems to show that Interactivity is the most significant contributor to engagement)
- Beasley, Nicola and Smyth, Keith. Expected and Actual Student Use of an Online Learning Environment: A Critical Analysis. Electronic Journal of ELearning. Vol. 2, No.2. (Not exactly game related, but it is an eye-opening study of how little even computer-savvy students will use online resources without some intervention)
- Crawford, Chris. "The Art of Computer Game Design". 1982.
- Gee, James Paul. Professor of Curriculum and Instruction in the School of Education at UW-Madison
- Helmer, John and Learning Light. Second Life and Virtual Worlds (pdf)
- Juul, Jesper Publications on games
- Lieberman, Debra. "What is a Game?". 2007.
- Linser, Roni and Ip, Albert . Imagining the World: The Case for Non-Rendered Virtuality - the Role Play Simulation Model by. Excellent article on Role Playing and sims.
- Magerko, Brian, et.al. Intelligent Adaptation of Digital Game-Based Learning (description of a game that attempts to adapt its goals and game-play to the style of the student)
- Oblinger, Diane "Games and Learning" EDUCAUSE Magazine
- Oblinger, Diane Slides from "The Net Generation as Harbingers for Change: Implications for Higher Education"
- O'Neil, Harold F. et. al. Classification of Learning Outcomes: Evidence from the Computer Games Literature. Curriculum Journal, Volume 16, Issue 4, December 2005. This is a metastudy which highlighted the relationship of instructional design to effective games and learning outcomes, and the importance of the role of affective learning.
- PIXELearning. What are 'Serious Games' and immersive learning simulations? Article Link , White Papers Article Link
- PIXELearning. White Papers
- Marc Prensky.com
- Serious Games Effectiveness Research A review of the research on the effectiveness of Serious Games
- Van Eck, Richard. Learning Through Gaming: Why Games in Education and the Workplace Make Sense (lots of research on effectiveness and best practices)
- Van Eck, Richard. "Digital Game-Based Learning: It's Not Just the Digital Natives Who Are Restless," EDUCAUSE Review, Vol. 41, No. 2."
- Vygotsky, Lev S. Mind in Society: Development of Higher Psychological Processes, p. 86
- see also: Wikipedia article on Zone of Proximal Development (contains many more references if you are interested in pursuing this)
- Wilson, Katherine A., et. al. "Relationships Between Game Attributes and Learning Outcomes: Review and Research Proposals".
Games and Healthcare Training
- Begg, Michael, et. al. Transforming Professional Healthcare Narratives into Structured Game-Informed-Learning Activities. Innovate, Aug/Sept. 2007 (The Labyrinth Virtual Patient-based project)
- Breslin, Paul and McGowan, Clem. Advanced computer simulation games help to transform healthcare and disaster preparedness.
- Eliane Alhadeff's blog page on Serious Games And The Art of Medical Interview
- Hanson, Dr. Margaret M. Literature Review of Virtual 3D Learning in Healthcare" Journal of Medical Internet Research.
- Imperial College, London. Game-based Learning for Virtual Patients in Second Life.
- Kleefeld, Eric. Video game technology could improve physician-patient interactions. 2005
- Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 17 (conference blog)
- O'Leary, Sharon, et. al. Educational games in an
obstetrics and gynecology core curriculum. American Journal of
Obstetrics and Gynecology (2005) 193, 1848-51
- Scrafford, Sarah. Medical Games Preparing for Real Life
- Games for Health - a Del.icio.us list of links
- Top 10: Virtual Medical Sites in Second Life
- SLHealthy: Wiki on Health and Healthcare in Second Life
- Patricia F. Anderson, Emerging Technologies Librarian, Health Sciences Libraries
Virtual Patient Standard and Applications
- Working with the Medbiquitous Virtual Patient Standard
- eViP Project Team. Case studies of the use of virtual patients
- Imperial College of London: Virtual Patients
- Toro-Troconis, Maria. Imperial College of London. Virtual World Watch Blog Archive
- Imperial College of London: Game-based Learning for Virtual Patients in Second Life
Games and Patient Education and Rehabilitation
- Alexander, Leigh. Grants Awarded For Inspiring Health Games Research. 2008. Kotaku.com
- Watters, Carolyn, et.al. Extending the Use of Games in Health Care (IEEE article pdf)
- Adobe Flash
- Adobe Captivate
- Microsoft Silverlight
- JW FLV player - scriptable media player
- Articulate Presenter
- Pulse! by Breakaway: an immersive virtual learning space for training health care professionals in clinical skills
- Second Life
- Open source Second Life-like grid
- Thinking Worlds
- MediSmart Nursing Education Resources
- General Game Design GameDev.net
- 50 Great Learning Tools & Video Games for Nurses & Health Professionals
- Quia.com: Subscription website where you can create games and activities More...
- Jefferson County Schools Powerpoint Game templates Includes "Are you smarter than a Fifth Grader, Password, Jeopardy, Wheel of Fortune, etc.
- Rationale and description of JCAHO Trivia game
- University of Michigan Medical School: Medical Gross Anatomy games and templates
- 50 Great Learning Tools & Video Games for Nurses & Health Professionals
- Matching game
- Flash cards
- Concentration game
- Word search puzzle
- Challenge board
- Columns activity
- Hangman game
- Jumbled words
- Ordered list activity
- Picture perfect activity
- Rags-to-riches game
- Scavenger hunt
- Cloze activity
Authoring Software for building games
Medical Simulation Games and Open Worlds
Templates and generators for Games
Quia.com and other game generator sites
The role of search in corporate learning programs
Enterprise Search as Learning Technology
With the current training industry interest in elearning trends like informal learning, social and collaborative Web 2.0 learning technologies, it's easy to overlook the importance of the humble search box as a learning tool.
More important now than everIn a time of economic downturn where so many people are being laid off or retired without being replaced, there will inevitably be fewer experienced workers. Corporate memory shrinks and enterprise search becomes even more crucial, as inexperienced users require access to information. Today's worker wears many hats and is constantly learning.
As companies seek to squeeze more productivity out of fewer people and resources, one way to improve efficiency is to connect people with the information they need, as rapidly as possible. The barriers that exist between people and resources within company intranets are profound and economically significant. When the search engine is not up to the task, employees have few options to find the information they need: they can try to click through hundreds of irrelevant and outdated results, they can do multiple searches, attempting to find a search term that yields better results, they can ask a more experienced coworker for a pointer to the information, or they may try to consult a confusing and outdated list of links or bookmarks. In frustration they will probably go to Google or possibly even Twitter to find external information that is relevant, if not entirely in accord with company policy.
Walls around informationCorporations spend millions to create online training. Typically, much of that training is locked away in content packages sequestered in Learning Management Systems. How much of it can be directly searched? How much can be accessed "just-in-time"? Learning Management Systems usually only allow searches based on metadata, not content. Metadata is a notoriously poor way to know what is inside. Does this mean there are adequate reference guides or tutorials available available on-demand outside the formal context of the course? Sometimes, but not always. And even if they are there, they need to be discoverable! If the information in these courses is actually worth something, it should be as accessible as possible to employees that have the right to see it. Within a company there is always a tension between protecting confidential information and the need for efficient access to that information - the lines drawn may need to be evaluated and re-evaluated as times change.
Just-in-time and on-demand training
Employees may be trained weeks or months before putting their new skills into practice. At the point of use, they will likely need a refresher on detail or on the entire topic, but faster than reviewing an entire course. Ideally this information should be available just-in-time, accurately and rapidly. People will search for it based on the task they want to accomplish, not on the solution. If they have taken a course on it, they may search for it by the title of the course, but may not necessarily go to the LMS for that search. Adult learners are very goal-oriented. Wherever the information is, no matter what system it is buried in, it should be discoverable, if not actually visible to users with no permission to see it.
According to Jay Cross in a recent interview on Informal Learning:
- When learners need to figure out how to apply classroom concepts on the job, in their lives and in the world at large, they need a completely different kind of learning intervention.
... informal learning refers to the wide variety of spontaneous, unofficial, impromptu ways people learn to actually do their jobs. It offers a path to improved organizational capability, agility, and profits. It also respects and challenges them to be all they can be. The self-evident benefit of linking informal learning with the anytime, anywhere sensibilities of next-generation eLearning is that organizations combine informal alternatives such as social media, serious games, connections, and collaboration with online courses and on-demand tutorials.
Searching for information hidden in peopleOne of the benefits of social networks is the ability to discover people with ideas and skills. As a friend of mine once said about the business case for using Twitter: "...because the smartest people don't work at your company!" I would offer a corollary: "Because the smartest people don't work in your department!" would be my case for using Intranet social networking. People are fuzzy objects, constantly changing and difficult to define by skills. Putting their names in a talent management system, with a list of skills or courses they have taken or "goals" they have accomplished may not be the best way to find the skills you need within the organization. Things change too fast to be boxed in by job description or learning plan. Ideally some of this social networking data could be included in a corporate search portal, in some useful way.
Discovery of related topics
Ideally, a good search engine will be semantically sophisticated, can guess what searcher really means, and may suggest alternate searches or related topics. This is where informal learning is at its best. Looking for information on one topic could lead the searcher to a more helpful category.
Efficient access to information requires more than one technological solution, but since people tend to try the path of least resistance first - the main intranet search - using that search box should get them at least part of the way there.
Search is a two way street
When a user searches for information or help on a topic, they use what they know at the time, which is not necessarily the same as the keywords used in the solution. Modern search engines learn based on a variety of inputs, including result links that get clicked in each query, related queries, bounce rate, etc. So while the search engine is providing information to the users, they are providing information back to the search engine.
Enterprise Search: making the business case for improvementCompanies spend millions on training but not much on that last mile: fast, accurate access to the policies and up-to-date information that are needed in the unpredictable and changing workplace. For example, in healthcare, if a nurse spends 10 minutes extra searching for information needed right now, that has a real cost. If she comes up with an out-of-date policy or instructions, that can have an even greater cost. The same is true in other industries: access to the right information and the right just-in-time training is crucial.
Further, (anonymized) search trends can be used to help determine what training resources need to be added, or what topics need to be modified to reflect the way people contextualize their information: does what is out there really answer the questions people are asking? I frequently use search results from a department wiki in deciding what articles and tutorials to work on. I may think I've filled a need by creating a tutorial on a specific task, only to discover through watching searches that what is really needed is a set of tutorials or checklists on one or more end-to-end processes that incorporate that task.
According to a recent study of Global Intranet Practices & Trends, over half the organizations surveyed responded that their employees were not satisfied with their intranet search. The reasons why enterprise search is in such a poor state include the cost of upgrading it, as well as the perception that the intranet is neither a priority nor essential for daily work. This is a perception that needs to change to help align learning and learners with strategic goals.