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November 24, 2008

American Time Use Survey — 2007 Results

American Time Use Survey — 2007 Results
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today that in 2007:

* Twenty percent of employed persons did some or all of their work at home on days that they worked, and 87 percent did some or all of their work at their workplace.
* On an average day (which includes all 7 days of the week), 83 percent of women and 66 percent of men spent some time doing household activities, such as housework, cooking, lawn care, or financial and other household management.
* Watching TV was the leisure activity that occupied the most time, accounting for about half of leisure time, on average, for both men and women.

This annual release of American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data focuses on the average amount of time per day in 2007 that Americans worked, did house- hold activities, cared for household children, participated in educational activities, and engaged in leisure and sports activities. It also includes measures of the average time per day spent providing childcare–both as a primary (or main) activity and while doing other things–for the combined years 2003-07. Except for childcare, activities done simultaneously with primary activities were not collected.

Posted by ljridley at 02:56 PM | Comments (0)

Juvenile Arrests 2006

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) has published "Juvenile Arrests 2006." The 12-page bulletin draws on data from the FBI's "Crime in the United States 2006" to analyze trends in juvenile arrests.

In 2006, U.S. law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.2 million arrests of persons under age 18. In 1994, 1 of 6 alleged murder offenders known to law enforcement was younger than 18. In 2006, the ratio was 1 in 11.

Full document (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 02:24 PM | Comments (0)

November 21, 2008

Americans Believe Religious Values Are 'Under Attack'

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood
Source: Anti-Defamation League

A majority of the American people believes that religious values are "under attack," and that the people who run the television networks and major movie studios do not share the religious and moral values of most Americans, according to a survey from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued today.

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood, a national poll of 1,000 American adults conducted in October 2008 by The Marttila Communications Group, found that 61% of the American people continue to believe that religious values in this country are "under attack." The poll also found that 59% of Americans agree that "the people who run the TV networks and the major movie studios do not share the religious and moral values of most Americans."

Press Release; Poll Results (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 09:27 AM | Comments (0)

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

The Effect of Community-Level Socio-Economic Conditions on Threatening Racial Encounters
Heather Antecol, Deborah Cobb-Clark
Abstract; PDF

Parental Marital Disruption, Family Type, and Transfers to Disabled Elderly Parents
(forthcoming in: Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences)
Liliana E. Pezzin, Robert Pollak, Barbara Steinberg Schone
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 09:20 AM | Comments (0)

November 19, 2008

State of the World Population 2008

State of the World Population 2008: Reaching common ground: culture, gender and human rights
Source: United Nations Population Fund

Development strategies that are sensitive to cultural values can reduce harmful practices against women and promote human rights, including gender equality and women’s empowerment, affirms The State of World Population 2008 report from UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.

Reaching Common Ground: Culture, Gender and Human Rights, launched 12 November 2008, reports that culture is a central component of successful development of poor countries, and must be integrated into development policy and programming.

The report, which coincides with this year’s 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is based on the concept that the international human rights framework has universal validity. Human rights express values common to all cultures and protect groups as well as individuals. The report endorses culturally sensitive approaches to development and to the promotion of human rights, in general, and women’s rights, in particular.

Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:15 AM | Comments (0)

Cigarette Smoking Among Adults

Cigarette Smoking Among Adults --- United States, 2007
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Fewer U.S. adults smoke, but cigarette smoking continues to impose substantial health and financial costs on society, according to new data from CDC.

An estimated 19.8 percent of U.S. adults (43.4 million people), were current smokers in 2007, down from 20.8 percent in 2006, according to a study in CDC?s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, released in advance of the Great American Smokeout. However, based on the current rate of decline, it is unlikely that the national health objective of reducing the prevalence of adult cigarette smoking to 12 percent or lower will be met by 2010.

Smoking causes at least 30 percent of all cancer deaths, including more than 80 percent of lung cancer deaths, and 80 percent of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is responsible for early cardiovascular disease and death. As a result, about half of all long-term smokers, particularly those who began smoking as teens, die prematurely, many in middle age.

Posted by ljridley at 11:12 AM | Comments (0)

Poll: Concerns About Racial Tensions Decline Sharply In America

American Attitudes on Immigration and Diversity
Source: Anti-Defamation League

There has been a steep decline in concerns about racial tensions in America over the past 15 years, according to a newly released poll from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The poll also found a significant majority — 66% — views the growth of America’s minority populations as advantageous to the economy and society.

American Attitudes on Immigration and Diversity, a national poll of 1,000 American adults conducted on October 26, 2008 by the Marttila Communications Group, found that only one-third of the American people believes that racial tensions are increasing in this country. That is a substantial decline from 1992, when three-quarters of the American people expressed the same sentiment.

The poll also found that 66% of Americans view the country’s population growth due to immigration as “an advantage for America.? The poll was released during the League’s 2008 Annual Meeting in Los Angeles.

Press Release; Full Results (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:05 AM | Comments (0)

Effects of Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Poverty on Health and Racial Health Disparities

The Place We Live, the Health We Have: A Multi-Level, Life Course Perspective on the Effects of Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Poverty on Health and Racial Health Disparities
By: D. Phuong Do
Source: RAND

Although our choices and behaviors are inherently expressed at the individual level, they are often influenced and constrained by the larger social and economic context to which we are exposed. Consequently, place can play an influential role in shaping our culture, our lifestyle, our behavior, and our aspirations in life. The author investigates the relationship between metropolitan-level segregation measures and individual-level health outcomes; distinguishes between transient and persistent exposure to individual and neighborhood poverty in estimating individual and neighborhood poverty effects on health and racial health disparities; and estimates the causal impact of neighborhood disadvantage on health. Racial and economic segregation detrimentally affects the health of blacks, even after adjustment of individual socioeconomic factors, but its effects on health for whites are either neutral or beneficial. However, multiple-year measurements of individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic factors lead to substantial reduction in the magnitude of the black/white health gap.

Full Document (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:50 AM | Comments (0)

Household Food Security in the United States, 2007

Household Food Security in the United States, 2007
By: Mark Nord, Margaret Andrews, and Steven Carlson
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2007, meaning that they had access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households (11.1 percent) were food insecure at least some time during the year. About one-third of food insecure households (4.1 percent of all U.S. households) had very low food security—meaning that the food intake of one or more adults was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food. Prevalence rates of food insecurity and very low food security were essentially unchanged from those in 2005 and 2006.

Chapters; Full Report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 09:53 AM | Comments (0)

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood

American Attitudes on Religion, Moral Values and Hollywood
Source: Anti-Defamation League

A majority of the American people believes that religious values are "under attack," and that the people who run the television networks and major movie studios do not share the religious and moral values of most Americans, according to a survey from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued today.

The survey was conducted by the Marttila Communications Group, a Boston-based public opinion research firm that has conducted numerous national surveys for ADL measuring American attitudes on a wide range of domestic and foreign policy issues. The survey has a margin of error of +/-3.09 percent. For many questions, the survey used the technique of split sampling," a process in which the 1,000 sample was split into two demographically representative national samples of 500 respondents each. The margin of error for questions answered by 500 respondents is +/- 4.38 percent.

Press Release; Poll (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 09:47 AM | Comments (0)

November 13, 2008

New Working Papers from the NBER

Effects of Welfare Reform on Educational Acquisition of Young Adult Women
Dhaval M. Dave, Nancy E. Reichman, Hope Corman
Abstract; PDF

Identification and Estimation of 'Irregular' Correlated Random Coefficient Models
Bryan S. Graham, James Powell
Abstract; PDF

Are Mixed Neighborhoods Always Unstable? Two-Sided and One-Sided Tipping
David Card, Alexandre Mas, Jesse Rothstein
Abstract; PDF

Are Big Cities Really Bad Places to Live? Improving Quality-of-Life Estimates across Cities
David Albouy
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 12:02 PM | Comments (0)

November 11, 2008

New Working Papers from the NBER

Identification with Imperfect Instruments
Aviv Nevo, Adam M. Rosen
Abstract; PDF

Work Expectations, Realizations, and Depression in Older Workers
Tracy A. Falba, William T. Gallo, Jody L. Sindelar
Abstract; PDF

Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement
Jesse Rothstein
Abstract; PDF

When Does Improving Health Raise GDP?
Quamrul H. Ashraf, Ashley Lester, David N. Weil
Abstract; PDF

Measuring Labor Earnings Inequality using Public-Use March Current Population Survey Data: The Value of Including Variances and Cell Means When Imputing Topcoded Values
Richard V. Burkhauser, Shuaizhang Feng, Jeff Larrimore
Abstract; PDF

Estimating Welfare in Insurance Markets Using Variation in Prices
Liran Einav, Amy Finkelstein, Mark R. Cullen
Abstract; PDF

Urban Inequality
Edward L. Glaeser, Matthew G. Resseger, Kristina Tobio
Abstract; PDF

Time Spent in Home Production in the 20th Century: New Estimates from Old Data
Valerie A. Ramey
Abstract; PDF

Psychiatric Disorders and Employment: New Evidence from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES)
Pinka Chatterji, Margarita Alegria, David Takeuchi
Abstract; PDF

Sufficient Statistics for Welfare Analysis: A Bridge Between Structural and Reduced-Form Methods
Raj Chetty
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas
Mark Duggan, Randi Hjalmarsson, Brian A. Jacob
Abstract; PDF

When The Saints Come Marching In: Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Student Evacuees
Bruce Sacerdote
Abstract; PDF

The Transmission of Women's Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation Across Immigrant Generations
Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn, Albert Yung-Hsu Liu, Kerry L. Papps
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 09:55 AM | Comments (0)

Still Working Hard, Still Falling Short

Still Working Hard, Still Falling Short
Source: The Working Poor Families Project

This report by the Working Poor Families Project provides new analysis of U.S. Census data and clearly highlights the major challenges facing America. Inside the report you'll find:

* State-by-state rankings on low-income working families;
* Myths and facts about low-income working families;
* A look at specific states and how they’re faring, and
*A call for stronger policies at the state and federal level.

The economic turmoil of 2008 is making it even more difficult for working families to achieve economic success. Federal and state governments must do a better job of supporting families seeking to work their way into the middle class and restore the promise of the American Dream.

Full Report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 09:44 AM | Comments (0)

Inside Obama’s Sweeping Victory

Inside Obama’s Sweeping Victory
Source: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press

Barack Obama captured the White House on the strength of a substantial electoral shift toward the Democratic Party and by winning a number of key groups in the middle of the electorate. Overall, 39% of voters were Democrats while 32% were Republicans — a dramatic shift from 2004 when the electorate was evenly divided. The Democratic advantage in Election Day party identification was significantly larger than in either of Bill Clinton’s victories.

Posted by ljridley at 09:38 AM | Comments (0)

November 06, 2008

Migration and Human Rights

International Migration and Human Rights: Challenges and Opportunities on the Threshold of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Source: Global Migration Group (GMG)

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, whose sixtieth anniversary we celebrate this year, remains the primary international articulation of the fundamental rights of all members of the human family. To mark the anniversary, the member agencies of the Global Migration Group have embarked on a timely, collaborative effort to analyze the challenges of protecting the human rights of international migrants.

This report is the product of that process. Among its main findings is the assessment that despite the many positive contributions migration makes to the development of countries of origin and destination, it is essential that migrants are seen not solely as agents of development. They are human beings with rights that States have an obligation to protect even when they exercise their sovereign right to determine who enters and remains in their territory.

Cooperation between governments in countries of origin, transit and destination, and among non-governmental organizations, civil society and migrants themselves, is vital for ensuring that international human rights instruments are implemented and that migrants are aware of their rights and obligations. Groups with special needs, including migrant children, female labour migrants in the informal sector, trafficking victims and irregular migrants, as well as refugees and asylum seekers, are particularly deserving of and entitled to effective protection.

Full Document (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:23 AM | Comments (0)

Simulated Effects of Changes to State and Federal Asset Eligibility Policies for the Food Stamp Program

Simulated Effects of Changes to State and Federal Asset Eligibility Policies for the Food Stamp Program
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
By: Karen Cunnyngham and James Ohls

This study uses a microsimulation model to assess the effect of changes to State-level Food Stamp Program (FSP) asset rules on household eligibility and on the benefits that eligible households would receive. The findings show that 7 percent of households eligible in 2006 were eligible only through expanded categorical eligibility rules that exempted the households from the standard Federal FSP asset rules and that 1 percent of eligible households were eligible because of State rules that counted fewer vehicle assets toward the asset limits. The number of eligible households would increase by about 3 percent if asset limits were raised by $2,000, by 22 percent if the asset test were eliminated, by 2 percent if retirement accounts were excluded, and by less than half of 1 percent if all vehicles were excluded. Eligibility across States varied widely, with 32 percent of households eligible in at least one State but not eligible in all States. The Food Stamp Program was renamed to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in October 2008.

Entire Report

Technical Appendix

Posted by ljridley at 10:19 AM | Comments (0)

Teen Pregnancy and Television

RAND Study Is First to Link Viewing of Sexual Content on Television to Subsequent Teen Pregnancy
Source: RAND Corporation

Adolescents who have high levels of exposure to television programs that contain sexual content are twice as likely to be involved in a pregnancy over the following three years as their peers who watch few such shows, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

The study, published in the November edition of the journal Pediatrics, is the first to establish a link between teenagers’ exposure to sexual content on TV and either pregnancies among girls or responsibility for pregnancies among boys.

Full Press Release

Study Brief

Full article citation:
Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Anita Chandra, Steven C. Martino, Rebecca L. Collins, Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, and Angela Miu
Pediatrics 2008; 122: 1047-1054.
[Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] (requires University of Michigan Authentication)

Posted by ljridley at 10:06 AM | Comments (0)

World of Work Report 2008

Global income inequality gap is vast and growing
Source: International Labour Organization

Despite strong economic growth that produced millions of new jobs since the early 1990s, income inequality grew dramatically in most regions of the world and is expected to increase due to the current global financial crisis, according to a new study published today by the research arm of the International Labour Organization (ILO).

The new report, entitled World of Work Report 2008: Income inequalities in the age of financial globalization, produced by the ILO’s International Institute for Labour Studies also notes that a major share of the cost of the financial and economic crisis will be borne by hundreds of millions of people who haven’t shared in the benefits of recent growth.

Executive Summary; Full Report (PDF's)

Posted by ljridley at 10:01 AM | Comments (0)

Congressional Hearing on Family Poverty

Leave No Family Behind: How Can We Reduce the Rising Number of American Families Living in Poverty?
Source: U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee
Date: September 25, 2008

U.S. Senator Charles E. Schumer and Representative Carolyn B. Maloney, Chairman and Vice Chair respectively of the Joint Economic Committee (JEC), held a hearing on poverty in the United States on Thursday, September 25, 2008 at 10:00 am in Room 562 of the Dirksen Senate Office Building. The JEC hearing entitled, “Leave No Family Behind: How Can We Reduce the Rising Number of American Families Living in Poverty??, featured Mayor David N. Cicilline and poverty experts who examined whether the outdated federal poverty measurements are preventing resources from reaching families and elderly Americans and what legislation may be appropriate to drastically reduce the number of U.S. families living in poverty. Since 2000, the number of Americans living in poverty jumped by 5.7 million to 37.3 million; and the poverty rate rose to 12.5 percent in 2007.

PDFs of Testimonies and Archived Videos

Posted by ljridley at 09:52 AM | Comments (0)