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May 28, 2009

Trends in Sexual Experience, Contraceptive Use, and Teenage Childbearing: 1992–2002

Trends in Sexual Experience, Contraceptive Use, and Teenage Childbearing: 1992–2002
Source: Journal of Adolescent Health

Recent increases in the U.S. teen birth rate highlight the continued importance of improving reproductive health outcomes. Our research suggests that it is important for programs to take into consideration how family, individual, and relationship environments influence decision-making about sex, contraception, and childbearing.

Posted by yanfu at 04:39 PM | Comments (0)

May 20, 2009

Changing Patterns of Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States

Changing Patterns of Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States
By: Stephanie J. Ventura, Division of Vital Statistics
Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Data Brief

This report examines data on nonmarital births from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). The principal measures reviewed are the number of births to unmarried women, the birth rate for unmarried women, and the percentage of all births to unmarried women. The most recent data available are from the 2007 preliminary birth file (5). Data for 2006 are shown where the 2007 data are not available. Comparisons are also made with selected earlier years reflecting key points of change.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:05 AM | Comments (0)

Census Bureau Releases State and County Data Depicting Nation’s Population Ahead of 2010 Census

Census Bureau Releases State and County Data Depicting Nation’s Population Ahead of 2010 Census

From the press release:

Orange, Fla., joins the growing list of ‘majority-minority’ counties

Orange County, Fla., the nation’s 35th most populous county, is one of six counties to have become majority-minority between 2007 and 2008, according to state and county population estimates by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin released today by the U.S. Census Bureau. Majority-minority is defined as more than half the population being of a group other than single-race, non-Hispanic white.

Perhaps best known as home to Walt Disney World and Orlando, Orange County was slightly more than 50 percent minority in 2008, including 25 percent Hispanic and 22 percent black or African-American.

“These estimates paint a detailed portrait of our nation at the national, state and county levels ahead of next year’s 2010 Census,” said Census Bureau Acting Director Tom Mesenbourg.

Five other U.S. counties also became majority-minority in 2008 – Stanislaus, Calif.; Finney, Kan.; Warren, Miss.; Edwards, Texas; and Schleicher, Texas. Nearly 10 percent (309) of the nation’s 3,142 counties were majority-minority as of July 1, 2008 (of that total, 56 have become majority-minority since April 1, 2000).

Starr County, Texas, had the highest percentage minority population (98 percent), followed by two other Texas counties – Maverick (97 percent) and Webb (95 percent). The vast majority of the minority population in all three of these counties was Hispanic.

One county, Webster, Ga., was majority-minority in 2007 but not in 2008.

Four states were majority-minority in 2008: Hawaii (75 percent), New Mexico (58 percent), California (58 percent) and Texas (53 percent). The District of Columbia was 67 percent minority. No other state had more than a 43 percent minority population.

Detailed Tables

Posted by ljridley at 11:00 AM | Comments (0)

May 14, 2009

Prevalence, Causes and Response to Food Stamp Program Use

On Intra-Annual Poverty in the U.S.: Prevalence, Causes and Response to Food Stamp Program Use
By: Elton Mykerezi and Bradford Mills
Source: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics, Staff Papers

Abstract:
Poverty measurement with data whose reference period is one year masks family exposure to poverty that only lasts for part of the year. We use quarterly expenditure data and decomposable severity of poverty indexes to quantify consumption-based intra-annual poverty, determine its causes and its response to federal food assistance. Results show that twice as many households are poor for at least one quarter then would be classified as poor with annual consumption data. Severity indexes indicate that intra-annual poverty accounts for over one third of the total annual severity of poverty. The common determinants of intra-annual and annual poverty include low human capital, unemployment and minority status. Changes in family size during the year affect intra-annual but not annual poverty. We also find evidence that food stamp program use reduces intra-annual poverty.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 01:30 PM | Comments (0)

Retirement Decisions of Women and Men in Response to Their Own and Spousal Health

Retirement Decisions of Women and Men in Response to Their Own and Spousal Health
By: Serhii Ilchuk
Source: RAND, PRGS Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact of individual and spousal health on the retirement decisions of both spouses in dual-earner families. The author uses survival analysis techniques to analyze eight biennial waves of a nationally representative panel survey of the U.S. population over age 50. Of the various causes of early retirement, the onset of work disability or functional disability has the biggest effect, followed by major health events and chronic illnesses. The onset of a husband's work disability can lead to an earlier age of retirement not only for the husband himself but also, through joint retirement, for his wife. The author also calculates cost-of-illness estimates for indirect costs (productivity lost through an early retirement) of different health conditions at the individual and societal levels, and estimates total family productivity lost due to the spouse's work disability.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:44 AM | Comments (0)

Political Manipulation of the Census has been Rejected throughout the course of American history

Report: Political Manipulation of the Census has been Rejected throughout the course of American history
Source: U.S. House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (GOP)

A report released by House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Republican staff examining the Constitutional foundation and history of the U.S. Census concludes that while the latest attempt by the White House to politicize the Census, though not entirely unprecedented, is unlikely to succeed.

“When it comes to the Census, history demonstrates that political gamesmanship has always been the losing proposition,” the report concludes. “Dating from before the founding of the United States through the present, there have been Census debates over everything from Constitutional issues and types of ‘estimation’ to reapportionment. In each and every debate, however, the politics of interference in and manipulation of the Census lose out to independence.”

The report’s release comes in advance of the scheduled Friday confirmation hearing of Census Director nominee Robert Groves who must explain how his leadership will result in an apolitical count that fully meets all Constitutional requirements. Questions about Groves’ ability to lead the Census Bureau have recently been raised by his decision to single out Congressional Republicans – while excluding Congressional Democrats – for criticism in a May 7, 2009 Associated Press story.

Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:39 AM | Comments (0)

WIC and the Battle Against Childhood Overweight

WIC and the Battle Against Childhood Overweight
By: Michele Ver Ploeg
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

One of the most worrisome aspects of the growing tide of obesity in the United States is the high rate of overweight among children. Over one in five young children, ages 2 to 5, are at risk of being overweight. The number of children at risk of being overweight has grown in the past two decades, as has the number of young children whose families participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Are these increases connected? The answer appears to be “No.” However, being from a low-income family, especially a low-income, Mexican-American family, does raise the probability of a child’s being at risk for overweight. This brief examines trends in the relationship between WIC participation and weight status by updating the results of Food and Nutrition Assistance Programs and Obesity: 1976-2002 (ERR-48) to include data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:36 AM | Comments (0)

A State-by-State Look at Adult Health

Reaching America's Health Potential: A State-by-State Look at Adult Health
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

This chartbook, released by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to Build a Healthier America, provides state and national data on self-reported adult health status. These data illustrate a consistent and striking pattern of incremental improvements in health with increasing levels of educational attainment: As levels of education rise, health improves.

Chartbook (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:32 AM | Comments (0)

Health Care in Rural America

HHS Releases New Report: Hard Times in the Heartland: Health Care in Rural America
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Hard Times in the Heartland indicates that nearly 50 million people in rural America face challenges accessing health care. Not only do these Americans face higher rates of poverty, they report more health problems, are more likely to be uninsured, and have less access to a primary health care providers than do Americans living in urban areas. The report notes:

* Nearly one in five of the uninsured -- 8.5 million people -- live in rural areas.
* Rural residents pay on average for 40 percent of their health care costs out of their own pocket, compared with the urban share of one-third.
* In a multi-state survey, one in five insured farmers had medical debt.

Full report (HTML)
Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:20 AM | Comments (0)

May 12, 2009

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Stepping Stone or Dead End? The Effect of the EITC on Earnings Growth
Molly Dahl, Thomas DeLeire, Jonathan Schwabish
Abstract; PDF

Does Job Loss Cause Ill Health?
Martin Salm
Abstract; PDF

Do the Obese Really Die Younger or Do Health Expenditures Buy Them Extra Years?
Paul Frijters, Juan D. Barón
Abstract; PDF

Family Ties and Political Participation
Alberto Alesina, Paola Giuliano
Abstract; PDF

Family Ties and Political Participation
Alberto Alesina, Paola Giuliano
Abstract; PDF

Dynamics of Poor Health and Non-Employment
Peter Haan, Michal Myck
Abstract; PDF

Immigrant Wages in the Spanish Labour Market: Does the Origin of Human Capital Matter?
Esteve Sanromá, Raul Ramos, Hipólito Simón
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 01:29 PM | Comments (0)

May 07, 2009

New Book Acquisitions

HIV prevalence estimates from the demographic and health surveys
By: Erica Nybro, Bernard Barrère. 2008.

HIV tests among thousands of men and women provide a sobering look at the international epidemic. A new publication, HIV Prevalence Estimates from the Demographic and Health Surveys, summarizes the results of population-based HIV tests in 28 countries among more than 400,000 men and women worldwide.

Starting in 2001, the MEASURE DHS project included blood tests for HIV in its national surveys, leading world experts to readjust international estimates of HIV prevalence. While this readjustment lowered the estimates of HIV infection worldwide, the new report describes the international burden of the epidemic with prevalence rates ranging from less than one percent in Asia and West Africa to almost 26 percent in Swaziland. Southern Africa is by far the most affected region. About one in four adults is infected in Lesotho and Swaziland and 18 percent in Zimbabwe. Less than one percent of the population is infected in the three Asian countries with DHS-based HIV estimates-India, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In India, however, less than one percent means that close to 2 million people age 15-49 are infected with HIV.

Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide
By: Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart. 2004.

Seminal thinkers of the nineteenth century -- Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud -- all predicted that religion would gradually fade in importance and cease to be significant with the emergence of industrial society. The belief that religion was dying became the conventional wisdom in the social sciences during most of the twentieth century. During the last decade, however, the secularization thesis has experienced the most sustained challenge in its long history. The traditional secularization thesis needs updating. Religion has not disappeared and is unlikely to do so. Nevertheless, the concept of secularization captures an important part of what is going on. This book develops a theory of secularization and existential security. Sacred and Secular is essential reading for anyone interested in comparative religion, sociology, public opinion, political behavior, political development, social psychology, international relations, and cultural change.

Assessing Organizational Change: A Guide to Methods, Measures, and Practices
Stanley E. Seashore, Edward E. Lawler III, Philip H. Mirvis, Cortlandt Cammann. 1983.

From the preface: This book is about assessing organizational change. It is a progress report on the results of a multiyear large-scale effort to develop measures, methods, and practices to measure change. To a significant degree it is a how-to book that contains a wide range of measurement instruments, observation techniques, and analytical methods.

A biologist's guide to mathematical modeling in ecology and evolution
Sarah P. Otto, Troy Day. 2007.

Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own.

The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction.

Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists.

Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships
Sara Arber, Kate Davidson, Jay Ginn. 2003.

This book is a follow-up to Arber and Ginn's award winning Connecting Gender and Ageing (1995). It contains original chapters from eminent writers on gender and ageing, addressing newly emergent areas within gender and ageing, including gender identity and masculinity in later life. Early work on gender and ageing was dominated by a focus on older women. The present collection breaks with this tradition by emphasizing changing gender roles and relationships, gender identity and an examination of masculinities in midlife and later life.

A key theme running through the book is the need to reconceptualize partnership status, in order to understand the implications for women and men of widowhood, divorce and new forms of relationships, such as Living Apart Together (LAT-relationships). Another is the influence of socio-economic circumstances on how ageing is experienced and transitions are negotiated.

The book illustrates new ways of thinking about old age and indicates policy implications, especially concerning the nature of service provision for older people. It will change the ways in which social scientists conceptualize later life.

Written with undergraduate students and researchers in mind, Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships will be an invaluable text for those studying social gerontology, sociology of later life, gender studies, health and community care and social policy.

Demographic Challenges for the 21st Century: A State of the Art in Demography
Johan Surkyn, Patrick Deboosere, Jan Van Bavel. 2008.

Inspired by the work of Ron Lesthaeghe, retired Belgian professor of demography and social science research methodology, this collection of contributions is also based on a conference entitled "Demographic Challenges for the 21st Century: A State of the Art in Demography." During Ron Lesthaeghe’s tenure, he established himself as a scholar, publishing highly influential work that changed the face of demography and founded the research group, Interface Demography. Most of his research was in the various subfields of demography: historical, social, and economic, and mainly covered populations of Europe and of sub-Saharan Africa. He also researched the fields of cultural change in Europe and of ethnic minority studies. This book offers a collection of tributes to his contribution to demography, presented by leading international demographers.

Posted by ljridley at 02:20 PM | Comments (0)

New Working Papers from the NBER

The Causes and Effects of International Migrations: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005
Francesc Ortega, Giovanni Peri
Abstract; PDF

Estimation of Causal Effects in Experiments with Multiple Sources of Noncompliance
John Engberg, Dennis Epple, Jason Imbrogno, Holger Sieg, Ron Zimmer
Abstract; PDF

Why is Mobility in India so Low? Social Insurance, Inequality, and Growth
Kaivan Munshi, Mark Rosenzweig
Abstract; PDF

Menstruation and Education in Nepal
Emily Oster, Rebecca Thornton
Abstract; PDF

A Theory of Outsourcing and Wage Decline
Thomas J. Holmes, Julia Thornton Snider
Abstract; PDF

Paying for Progress: Conditional Grants and the Desegregation of Southern Schools
Elizabeth Cascio, Nora Gordon, Ethan Lewis, Sarah Reber
Abstract; PDF

Gender Roles and Medical Progress
Stefania Albanesi, Claudia Olivetti
Abstract; PDF

Bayesian and Frequentist Inference in Partially Identified Models Hyungsik Roger Moon, Frank Schorfheide
Abstract; PDF

Does Affirmative Action Lead to Mismatch? A New Test and Evidence
Peter Arcidiacono, Esteban M. Aucejo, Hanming Fang, Kenneth I. Spenner
Abstract; PDF

Beyond Wages: The Effects of Immigration on the Scale and Composition of Output
Francesca Mazzolari, David Neumark
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 01:25 PM | Comments (0)

May 04, 2009

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

The Gender Education Gap in China: The Power of Water
Yasheng Maimaiti, W. Stanley Siebert
Abstract; PDF

Do Immigrants Take the Jobs of Native Workers?
Nikolaj Malchow-Møller, Jakob Roland Munch, Jan Rose Skaksen
Abstract; PDF

Cultures, Clashes and Peace
Erin Fletcher, Murat Iyigun
Abstract; PDF

Evaluating the Impact of Community-Based Health Interventions: Evidence from Brazil's Family Health Program
Romero Rocha, Rodrigo R. Soares
Abstract; PDF

Delinquent Networks
Coralio Ballester, Antoni Calvó-Armengol, Yves Zenou
Abstract; PDF

Risk Attitude and Wage Growth: Replication and Reconstruction
Santiago Budria, Luis Diaz-Serrano, Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Joop Hartog
Abstract; PDF

Gender Interactions within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena
Stefano Gagliarducci, Daniele Paserman
Abstract; PDF

Critical Periods During Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Adult Height Among Immigrant Siblings
Gerard J. van den Berg, Petter Lundborg, Paul Nystedt, Dan-Olof Rooth
Abstract; PDF

Temporary Labour Migration and Welfare at the New European Fringe: A Comparison of Five Eastern European Countries
Alexander M. Danzer, Barbara Dietz
Abstract; PDF

Self-Selection and Earnings of Emigrants from a Welfare State
Panu Poutvaara, Martin D. Munk, Martin Junge
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 02:57 PM | Comments (0)

High School Students and Smoking

High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes — United States, 2007
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily smoking. To examine the extent to which high school students had tried to quit smoking cigarettes, CDC analyzed data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative survey of students in grades 9–12 in the United States. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that 60.9% of students who ever smoked cigarettes daily tried to quit smoking cigarettes, and 12.2% were successful. These findings indicate that comprehensive tobacco control programs need to continue to implement community-based interventions that prevent initiation and increase cessation and increase the use of evidence-based cessation strategies for youths.

Full text (html)
PDF of full issue (May 1, 2009)

Posted by ljridley at 02:45 PM | Comments (0)

More Than 1 in 10 Children Live with a Substance Abusing Parent

Study: More Than 1 in 10 Children Live with a Substance Abusing Parent

Almost 12 percent of children under the age of 18 years of age live with at least one parent who was dependent on or abused alcohol or an illicit drug during the past year, according to a report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The report is based on national data from 2002 to 2007.

Findings for Children Living with Substance-Dependent or Substance-Abusing Parents: 2002 to 2007 are drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual nationwide survey of persons aged 12 and older. This report focused on questions asked of 87,656 parents aged 18 and older about their substance dependence and abuse.

* HTML format (508 compliant & contains the data table that was used to construct each figure; this data table is not found in printed or PDF version)

* PDF format (256 KB, recommended for printing)

Posted by ljridley at 02:24 PM | Comments (0)

Occupational Employment and Wages 2008

Occupational Employment and Wages 2008

In 2008, the U.S. median wage was $15.57 per hour or $32,390 per year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of the U.S. Department of Labor. These data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, which provides employment and wage estimates for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 801 detailed occupations. OES produces data by occupation for the nation, states, metropolitan areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas, and by occupation and industry for the nation. National cross-industry employment and wage infor- mation for all occupations is shown in table 1. Complete data are available from the OES homepage at http://www.bls.gov/oes/.

Posted by ljridley at 02:11 PM | Comments (0)