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March 23, 2010

Two New Juvenile Justice Publications

Just the Facts: A Snapshot of Incarcerated Youth
By: José D. Saavedra
Source: National Council of La Raza

From Press Release:

Among the overall youth population of the United States, Latinos make up 19% of all 10- to 17-year-olds, yet they represent 25% of youth who are incarcerated. A new fact sheet released today by NCLR (National Council of La Raza), the largest national Hispanic civil rights and advocacy organization in the U.S., examines the racial and ethnic backgrounds of young people in the juvenile justice system.

Just the Facts: A Snapshot of Incarcerated Youth finds that Whites represent 59% of the U.S. population ages 10–17 and 30% of those who are incarcerated, while Latinos and Blacks make up 25% and 45%, respectively, of the incarcerated youth population.

Fact Sheet (PDF)

Youth Radio: Racial and Ethnic Disparities Juvenile Justice Data Map
Source: Burns Institute for Juvenile Justice Fairness & Equity

From Press Release:

A new interactive map of juvenile justice disparities across the country has become available to the public. The tool also provides state-by-state statistics, like California's drug arrests between 2003 and 2006, which show that the number of African American youth arrested increased by six over that period, while the number of Latino youth arrested for similar offenses decreased by 21.

Some notable data from a quick scan of the map's California statistics:

-In 2006, there were 3,024 Latino youth arrested for various offenses—making them the racial group with the highest number of arrests.

-The number of black and Latino youth incarcerated continues to increase.

-In 2007, there were 21,201 secure detentions of Latino youth, almost double the number of cases involving black youth.

State Map

Posted by ljridley at 03:32 PM | Comments (0)

Prison Count 2010

Prison Count 2010: State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years
Source: Pew Center on the States

For the first time in nearly 40 years, the number of state prisoners in the United States has declined, according to Prison Count 2010, a new survey by the Pew Center on the States. As of January 2010, there were 1,403,091 persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 5,739 fewer than on December 31, 2008. This marks the first year-to-year drop in the nation’s state prison population since 1972. While the study showed an overall decline, it revealed great variation among jurisdictions. The prison population declined in 27 states, while increasing in 23 states and in the federal system.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 02:09 PM | Comments (0)

March 18, 2010

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Cream-Skimming, Parking and Other Intended and Unintended Effects of Performance-Based Contracting in Social Welfare Services
Pierre Koning, Carolyn J. Heinrich
Abstract; PDF

Can We Measure Individual Risk Attitudes in a Survey?
Xiaohao Ding, Joop Hartog, Yuze Sun
Abstract; PDF

The Evolution of the Returns to Human Capital in Canada, 1980-2005
Brahim Boudarbat, Thomas Lemieux, Craig Riddell
Abstract; PDF

Intergenerational Income Mobility in Urban China
Cathy Honge Gong, Andrew Leigh, Xin Meng
Abstract; PDF

Economic Mobility, Family Background, and the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Canada
Miles Corak, Lori Curtis, Shelley Phipps
Abstract; PDF

Growth, History, or Institutions? What Explains State Fragility in Sub-Saharan Africa
Graziella Bertocchi, Andrea Guerzoni
Abstract; PDF

The Intergenerational Transmission of Employers
Miles Corak, Patrizio Piraino
Abstract; PDF

A New Model for Equitable and Efficient Resource Allocation to Schools: The Israeli Case
Iris BenDavid-Hadar, Adrian Ziderman
Abstract; PDF

Wages and Immigrant Occupational Composition in Sweden
Jörgen Hansen, Roger Wahlberg, Sharif Faisal
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 11:26 AM | Comments (0)

March 17, 2010

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

The Role of Early-Life Conditions in the Cognitive Decline due to Adverse Events Later in Life
Gerard J. van den Berg, Dorly J. H. Deeg, Maarten Lindeboom, France Portrait
Abstract; PDF

Gender Wage Gap: A Semi-Parametric Approach with Sample Selection Correction
Matteo Picchio, Chiara Mussida
Abstract; PDF

Trends in Economic Research: An International Perspective
Ana Rute Cardoso, Paulo Guimaraes, Klaus F. Zimmermann
Abstract; PDF

Financial Constraints and Innovation: Why Poor Countries Don't Catch Up
Yuriy Gorodnichenko, Monika Schnitzer
Abstract; PDF

Does Immigration Induce 'Native Flight' from Public Schools? Evidence from a Large Scale Voucher Program
Christer Gerdes
Abstract; PDF

Non-Response Biases in Surveys of School Children: The Case of the English PISA Samples
John Micklewright, Sylke V. Schnepf, Chris Skinner
Abstract; PDF

Increasing Income Inequality: Productivity, Bargaining and Skill-Upgrading
Anders Frederiksen, Odile Poulsen
Abstract; PDF

The Design of Unemployment Transfers: Evidence from a Dynamic Structural Life-Cycle Model
Peter Haan, Victoria L. Prowse
Abstract; PDF

Estimation of Heterogeneous Treatment Effects on Hazard Rates
Simen Gaure, Knut Roed, Gerard J. van den Berg, Tao Zhang
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Education on Smoking Behavior: New Evidence from Smoking Durations of a Sample of Twins
Pierre Koning, Dinand Webbink, Nicholas G. Martin
Abstract; PDF

Social Mobility: Is There an Advantage in Being English in Scotland?
Maarten van Ham, Allan Findlay, David Manley, Peteke Feijten
Abstract; PDF

Labour Supply and Commuting
(forthcoming in: Journal of Urban Economics)
Eva Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Jos van Ommeren
Abstract; PDF

Education and the Welfare Gains from Employment Protection
Olivier Charlot, Franck Malherbet
Abstract; PDF

The Credibility Revolution in Empirical Economics: How Better Research Design Is Taking the Con out of Econometrics
(forthcoming in: Journal of Economic Perspectives)
Joshua Angrist, Jörn-Steffen Pischke
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 11:24 AM | Comments (0)

March 16, 2010

Asset Poverty and Debt Among Families with Children

Asset Poverty and Debt Among Families with Children
Yumiko Aratani and Michelle Chau
Source: National Center for Children in Poverty

From Introduction:

Increasingly the significance of asset ownership among low-income families is being recognized. Assets such as savings and homeownership are vital components of a family’s economic security, along with income and human and social capital. In this report, we use the term “assets” to refer to financial and economic resources, not including human capital. Unlike labor market earnings, income generated from assets provides a cushion for families in case of job loss, illness, death of a parent, or even natural disaster. This cushion may be especially important for the working poor, whose economic lives can be severely impacted by even short periods of unemployment. Asset ownership can also have long-term consequences for children. Research shows parental financial assets such as savings are positively associated with the cognitive development of school-age children. Homeownership is also known to have a positive effect on high school graduation. There are two major ways in which assets positively benefit children. First, housing assets can be seen as a proxy for the quality of residence. Homeownership provides residential stability, and the market value of homes often indicates the quality of school that children attend. Secondly, financial assets are potential resources for a family to invest in children. They can be used for sending children to preparatory schools or financing a college education. Thus, family assets can positively promote children’s well-being and educational achievements.

Full text
Download PDF

Posted by ljridley at 11:35 AM | Comments (0)

Health, United States, 2009

Health, United States, 2009
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

From Press Release:

The use of medical technology in the United States increased dramatically between 1996 and 2006, according to "Health, United States, 2009," the federal government’s 33rd annual report to the President and Congress on the health of all Americans.

The report was prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics from data gathered by state and federal health agencies and through ongoing national surveys.

This year's edition features a special section on medical technology, and finds that the rate of magnetic resonance imaging, known as MRI, and computed and positron emission tomography or CT/PET scans, ordered or provided, tripled between 1996 and 2007.

Health, United States, 2009 Home Page. Includes complete report, executive summary, highlights, charts, and trend tables.

Posted by ljridley at 11:28 AM | Comments (0)

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Ethnic Discrimination in Germany's Labour Market: A Field Experiment
Leo Kaas, Christian Manger
Abstract; PDF

Ethnic Concentration and Language Fluency of Immigrants in Germany
Alexander M. Danzer, Firat Yaman
Abstract; PDF

Dialects, Cultural Identity, and Economic Exchange
Oliver Falck, Stephan Heblich, Alfred Lameli, Jens Suedekum
Abstract; PDF

Family Values and the Regulation of Labor
Alberto Alesina, Yann Algan, Pierre Cahuc, Paola Giuliano
Abstract; PDF

Minimum Wages and Employment: Reconsidering the Use of a Time-Series Approach as an Evaluation Tool
Wang-Sheng Lee, Sandy Suardi
Abstract; PDF

Determinants of Lifetime Unemployment: A Micro Data Analysis with Censored Quantile Regressions
Achim Schmillen, Joachim Möller
Abstract; PDF

Are Happiness and Productivity Lower among University Students with Newly-Divorced Parents? An Experimental Approach
Eugenio Proto, Daniel Sgroi, Andrew J. Oswald
Abstract; PDF

Stability of Time Preferences
Stephan Meier, Charles Sprenger
Abstract; PDF

The Analytical Returns to Measuring a Detailed Household Roster
Richard Akresh, Eric V. Edmonds
Abstract; PDF

The Political Economy of Intergenerational Income Mobility
Andrea Ichino, Loukas Karabarbounis, Enrico Moretti
Abstract; PDF

The Effect of Children on Specialization and Coordination of Partners' Activities
Anh Tram Le, Paul W. Miller
Abstract; PDF

Robust Inequality Comparisons
Rolf Aaberge, Magne Mogstad
Abstract; PDF

Does Size Matter? The Impact of Changes in Household Structure on Income Distribution in Germany
Andreas Peichl, Nico Pestel, Hilmar Schneider
Abstract; PDF

Handedness, Health and Cognitive Development: Evidence from Children in the NLSY
David W. Johnston, Michael E. R. Nicholls, Manisha Shah, Michael A. Shields
Abstract; PDF

No Country for Fat Men? Obesity, Earnings, Skills, and Health among 450,000 Swedish Men
Petter Lundborg, Paul Nystedt, Dan-Olof Rooth
Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 10:20 AM | Comments (0)