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April 09, 2010

U.S. Birth Rate Decline Linked to Recession

U.S. Birth Rate Decline Linked to Recession
By: Gretchen Livingston and D’Vera Cohn
Source: Pew Research Center, Social and Demographic Trends

From Introduction:

Birth rates in the United States began to decline in 2008 after rising to their highest level in two decades, and the decrease appears to be linked to the recession, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of state fertility and economic data.

This analysis is based on data from the 25 states for which final 2008 birth numbers are available. State-level indicators were used because the magnitude and timing of the recent economic decline varies from state to state, thus allowing a more nuanced analysis of links with fertility than is possible at the national level.

Full report (PDF)
Appendix (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:16 AM | Comments (0)

Toward Reduced Poverty Across Generations

Toward Reduced Poverty Across Generations: Early Findings from New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program
By: James Riccio, Nadine Dechausay, David Greenberg, Cynthia Miller, Zawadi Rucks, and Nandita Verma
Source: MDRC

From Overview:

In 2007, New York City’s Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC–Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. CCT programs offer cash assistance to reduce immediate hardship, but condition these transfers on families’ efforts to build up their “human capital,” often by developing the education and skills that may reduce their poverty over the longer term. Family Rewards is the first comprehensive CCT program in a developed country.

Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City’s highest-poverty communities, Family Rewards ties cash rewards to pre-specified activities and outcomes in children’s education, families’ preventive health care, and parents’ employment. The three-year program is being operated by Seedco — a private, nonprofit intermediary organization — in partnership with six community-based organizations. It is being evaluated by MDRC through a randomized control trial involving approximately 4,800 families and 11,000 children, half of whom can receive the cash incentives if they meet the required conditions, and half who have been assigned to a control group that cannot receive the incentives. This report presents initial findings during the program’s early operating period.



Executive Summary (PDF)

Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:11 AM | Comments (0)

The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household

The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household
Source: Pew Research Center, Social and Demographic Trends

From Section 1:

The multi-generational American family household is staging a comeback -- driven in part by the job losses and home foreclosures of recent years but more so by demographic changes that have been gathering steam for decades.

As of 2008, a record 49 million Americans, or 16.1% of the total U.S. population, lived in a family household that contained at least two adult generations or a grandparent and at least one other generation, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of census data.

Complete report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:59 AM | Comments (0)

U.S. Economic and Social Trends Since 2000

U.S. Economic and Social Trends Since 2000
By: Linda A. Jacobsen and Mark Mather
Source: Population Reference Bureau

From the press release:

Since the beginning of the current recession, homeownership and mobility rates have dropped; poverty has increased; and commuting patterns have shifted toward greener, more cost-effective options, according to a new report by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB).

PRB's Population Bulletin, "U.S. Economic and Social Trends Since 2000," by Linda A. Jacobsen and Mark Mather, is a wide-ranging analysis of how the U.S. population has changed since 2000. With the 2010 Census just around the corner, it is an appropriate time to compare the United States today with its demographic makeup at the last census in 2000.

Full text (PDF)
PRB Discuss Online: Linda Jacobsen and Mark Mather

Posted by ljridley at 10:52 AM | Comments (0)

April 07, 2010

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Hazard Analysis of Unemployment Duration by Gender in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey
Aysit Tansel, H. Mehmet Tasci
Abstract; Abstract

The Multitasking of Household Production
Charlene M. Kalenkoski, Gigi Foster
Abstract; Abstract

Does Education Reduce the Risk of Hypertension? Estimating the Biomarker Effect of Compulsory Schooling in England
Nattavudh Powdthavee
Abstract; Abstract

Recent Advances in the Economics of Individual Subjective Well-Being
Alois Stutzer, Bruno S. Frey
Abstract; Abstract

Health Care Expenditure and Income in the OECD Reconsidered: Evidence from Panel Data
Badi H. Baltagi, Francesco Moscone
Abstract; Abstract

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Drug Therapy
John R. Bowblis, Myeong-Su Yun
Abstract; Abstract

A Socio-economic Analysis of Youth Disconnectedness
Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Ruben R. Seiberlich
Abstract; Abstract

How Do Labor Markets Affect Crime? New Evidence on an Old Puzzle
(forthcoming in: Handbook on the Economics of Crime, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010)
David B. Mustard
Abstract; Abstract

The Glass Door: The Gender Composition of Newly-Hired Workers Across Hierarchical Job Levels
Wolter Hassink, Giovanni Russo
Abstract; Abstract

Posted by ljridley at 01:48 PM | Comments (0)

April 06, 2010

Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-Born Workers 2009

Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-Born Workers 2009
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

From news release:

The share of the U.S. labor force composed of the foreign born was little changed in 2009, and their unemployment rate rose from 5.8 to 9.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The jobless rate of the native born increased from 5.8 percent in 2008 to 9.2 percent in 2009.

This news release compares the labor force characteristics of the foreign born with those of their native-born counterparts. The data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are persons who reside in the United States but who were born outside the country or one of its outlying areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately identify the numbers of persons in these categories. For further information about the survey, see the Technical Note.

* Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-Born Workers Technical Note
* Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2008-09 annual averages
* Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2008-09 annual averages
* Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008-09 annual averages
* Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2009 annual averages
* Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2008-09 annual averages
* Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census regions and divisions, 2008-09 annual averages
* HTML version of the entire news release
* PDF version of the entire news release

Posted by ljridley at 02:24 PM | Comments (0)

Projection of populations by level of educational attainment, age, and sex for 120 countries for 2005-2050

Projection of populations by level of educational attainment, age, and sex for 120 countries for 2005-2050
By: Samir KC, Bilal Barakat, Anne Goujon, Vegard Skirbekk, Warren Sanderson, and Wolfgang Lutz
Source: Demographic Research

Abstract:
Using demographic multi-state, cohort-component methods, we produce projections for 120 countries (covering 93% of the world population in 2005) by five-year age groups, sex, and four levels of educational attainment for the years 2005-2050. Taking into account differentials in fertility and mortality by education level, we present the first systematic global educational attainment projections according to four widely differing education scenarios. The results show the possible range of future educational attainment trends around the world, thereby contributing to long-term economic and social planning at the national and international levels, and to the assessment of the feasibility of international education goals.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 02:14 PM | Comments (0)

America's Tomorrow: A Profile of Latino Youth

America's Tomorrow: A Profile of Latino Youth
By: Marguerite Moeller
Source: National Council of La Raza

This statistical brief examines the status of Latino youth in the United States. Latino youth, who compose nearly 20% of all youth in the country, experience high levels of poverty, high dropout rates, low graduation rates, high unemployment rates, and low rates of health insurance. Given that Latinos will compose about 30% of the U.S. population by 2050, the ability of Latino youth to overcome these pressing challenges today will directly impact the economic and social success of our nation in the future.

Posted by ljridley at 02:03 PM | Comments (0)

Family Factors and Student Outcomes

Family Factors and Student Outcomes
By: Nailing Xia
Source: RAND Corporation, PRGS Dissertations

To examine the effects of family process variables (specific things families do) and family status variables (who families are) on students' academic achievement and nonacademic outcomes, the author uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, a U.S. longitudinal dataset that follows a nationally representative sample of children from kindergarten through fifth grade, and the Programme for International Student Assessment, a cross-country cross-sectional dataset that assesses academic achievement of 15-year-old students. The U.S. data indicate that even after controlling for demographics and school inputs, student achievement was associated with such process variables as parental expectations and beliefs, learning structure, resource availability, home environment, parenting and disciplinary practices, and parental involvement. In addition, doing homework more frequently, having home Internet access, and owning a community library card had higher returns in terms of student achievement for black children or children from low socio-economic families than for their counterparts. U.S. students did not fare as well as their peers in other countries and economies, and family process variables, especially considered collectively, are important factors in explaining student achievement in an international setting.

Summary (PDF)
Full document (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 01:54 PM | Comments (0)

New Discussion Papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Differences in the Distribution of High School Achievement: The Role of Class Size and Time-in-Term
Miles Corak, Darren Lauzon
Abstract; Abstract

Multidimensional Measurement of Richness: Theory and an Application to Germany
Andreas Peichl, Nico Pestel
Abstract; Abstract

The Distributional Impact of Public Services When Needs Differ
Rolf Aaberge, Manudeep Singh Bhuller, Audun Langørgen, Magne Mogstad
Abstract; Abstract

Is There an Income Gradient in Child Health? It Depends Whom You Ask
David W. Johnston, Carol Propper, Stephen Pudney, Michael A. Shields
Abstract; Abstract

Who Wants to Work in a Rural Health Post? The Role of Intrinsic Motivation, Rural Background and Faith-Based Institutions in Rwanda and Ethiopia
Pieter Serneels, Jose G. Montalvo, Gunilla Pettersson, Tomas Lievens, Jean Damascene Butera, Aklilu Kidanu
Abstract; Abstract

A Simple Theory of Optimal Redistributive Taxation with Equilibrium Unemployment
Mathias Hungerbühler, Etienne Lehmann, Alexis Parmentier, Bruno Van der Linden
Abstract; Abstract

Public Education for the Children Left Behind
Carmen Camacho, I-Ling Shen
Abstract; Abstract

Overconfidence is a Social Signaling Bias
Stephen V. Burks, Jeffrey P. Carpenter, Lorenz Goette, Aldo Rustichini
Abstract; Abstract

Identification and Estimation of Distributional Impacts of Interventions Using Changes in Inequality Measures
Sergio Firpo
Abstract; Abstract

Polarization and Rising Wage Inequality: Comparing the U.S. and Germany
Dirk Antonczyk, Thomas DeLeire, Bernd Fitzenberger
Abstract; Abstract

Posted by ljridley at 01:21 PM | Comments (0)