March 16, 2010

Health, United States, 2009

Health, United States, 2009
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

From Press Release:

The use of medical technology in the United States increased dramatically between 1996 and 2006, according to "Health, United States, 2009," the federal government’s 33rd annual report to the President and Congress on the health of all Americans.

The report was prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics from data gathered by state and federal health agencies and through ongoing national surveys.

This year's edition features a special section on medical technology, and finds that the rate of magnetic resonance imaging, known as MRI, and computed and positron emission tomography or CT/PET scans, ordered or provided, tripled between 1996 and 2007.

Health, United States, 2009 Home Page. Includes complete report, executive summary, highlights, charts, and trend tables.

Posted by ljridley at 11:28 AM | Comments (0)

February 25, 2010

How Healthy Is Your County?

How Healthy Is Your County? New County Health Rankings Give First County-by-County Snapshot of Health in Each State
Source: University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

From the press release:

The County Health Rankings—the first set of reports to rank the overall health of every county in all 50 states—were released today by the University of Wisconsin’s Population Health Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation at a briefing in Washington, D.C and on www.countyhealthrankings.org. The 50 state reports help public health and community leaders, policy-makers, consumers and others to see how healthy their county is, compare it with others within their state and find ways to improve the health of their community.

Each county is ranked within the state on how healthy people are and how long they live. They also are ranked on key factors that affect health such as: smoking, obesity, binge drinking, access to primary care providers, rates of high school graduation, rates of violent crime, air pollution levels, liquor store density, unemployment rates and number of children living in poverty.

County Health Rankings

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January 28, 2010

Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States

Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States
By: Rogelio Saenz
Source: Population Reference Bureau

Recent recommendations from the U.S. government suggesting a relaxation in the age women should begin undergoing regular mammography exams have raised major debate and concerns.

The Department of Health and Human Services' Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women in their 40s forego routine mammography exams until they turn 50, at which time they should have the procedure done every two years. The report came on the heels of a debate in the medical community initiated months earlier with the publication of an article that suggested the benefits of early mammography screening were exaggerated, with false-positive detections too easily disregarded.

Critics of the report have accused the task force of using cold cost/benefit analyses that could potentially overturn the reductions in breast cancer deaths over the last couple of decades. Many fear that the recommendations represent the rationing of health care and that the health insurance industry will use the new guidelines to block access to mammography exams to women younger than 50.

According to the American Cancer Society, death rates associated with breast cancer have declined since 1990 at about 2 percent per year for women 50 and older and 3.2 percent annually among those younger than 50. Early detection of breast cancer through regular mammograms has been credited as one of the primary reasons behind the declining death rate from breast cancer.

Despite the decline, the disease continues to inflict a heavy toll on women in the United States. In 2009, approximately 40,000 women are expected to die from breast cancer, while roughly 192,000 women are expected to be diagnosed with the disease. There are also substantial race and ethnic gaps in breast cancer mortality rates, which could potentially increase under the newly proposed guidelines.

Full report

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December 17, 2009

Death in the United States, 2007

Death in the United States, 2007
By: Arialdi M. Miniño, Jiaquan Xu, Kenneth D. Kochanek, and Betzaida Tejada-Vera
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

* In 2007, the age-adjusted death rate for the United States reached a record low of 760.3 per 100,000 population. Life expectancy at birth reached a record high of 77.9 years.
* States in the southeast region have higher death rates than those in other regions of the country.
* In 2007, the five leading causes of death were heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and accidents. These accounted for over 64 percent of all deaths in the United States.
* White females have the longest life expectancy (80.7 years), followed by black females (77.0 years).
* The gap in life expectancy between white persons and black persons declined by 35 percent between 1989 and 2007. The race differential was 4.6 years in 2007.

Full text
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Posted by ljridley at 04:18 PM | Comments (0)

October 27, 2009

Improving Effectiveness and Outcomes for the Poor in Health, Nutrition and Population

Improving Effectiveness and Outcomes for the Poor in Health, Nutrition and Population
Source: World Bank

The World Bank Group’s support for health, nutrition, and population (HNP) has been sustained since 1997—totaling $17 billion in country-level support by the World Bank and $873 million in private health and pharmaceutical investments by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) through mid-2008. This report evaluates the efficacy of the Bank Group’s direct support for HNP to developing countries since 1997 and draws lessons to help improve the effectiveness of this support.

Click here to download Project Performance Assessment Reports for these countries

Posted by ljridley at 10:32 AM | Comments (0)

October 16, 2009

Immigrants & Health Care

Immigrants and Health Care Reform: What's Really at Stake?
By: Randy Capps, Marc R. Rosenblum, and Michael Fix
Source: Migration Policy Institute

In a new report, Immigrants and Health Care Reform: What's Really at Stake?, MPI's National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy offers the first-ever estimates of the size of uninsured immigrant populations in major immigrant-destination states, the number of immigrant workers covered by employer-provided plans and the share of immigrants employed by small firms likely to be exempted from employer coverage mandates. The report, based on MPI's analysis of Census Bureau data, also examines health coverage for immigrants by legal status, age and poverty levels.

Of the estimated 12 million lawful permanent residents in the United States, 4.2 million are uninsured and more than 1 million would be excluded from Medicaid coverage or insurance subsidies if Congress does not remove the five-year waiting period for eligibility. Thirty-eight percent of legal immigrants work at small firms of 25 workers or less, which are likely to be exempted from employer mandates. Just 32 percent of legal immigrant workers at these small firms have insurance compared with 71 percent for U.S.-born workers.

Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:22 AM | Comments (0)

September 23, 2009

New Families and Work Institute Study Reveals Declines in the Health of the American Workforce

The State of Health in the American Workforce
By: Kerstin Aumann and Ellen Galinsky
Source: Families and Work Institute

In the midst of the most vigorous national health care debate in 15 years, and at a time of heightened economic insecurity, new data on employers show that the health of employed American workers is trending downward in a number of important areas. The State of Health in the American Workforce, a report released today by the Families and Work Institute (FWI), finds that only 28% of employees today report that their overall health is “excellent,” down from 34% just six years ago. Perhaps surprisingly, men’s overall health has declined more rapidly than women’s. The report also sheds light on the relationship between an effective workplace and employee health, underlining the significant role that employers play beyond providing health insurance and wellness programs.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 03:18 PM | Comments (0)

Nation′s Teen Vaccination Coverage Increasing, Variability Observed By Area, Race/Ethnicity, and Poverty Status

Nation′s Teen Vaccination Coverage Increasing, Variability Observed By Area, Race/Ethnicity, and Poverty Status
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

From Press Release:

Vaccine coverage rates for the nation’s preteens and teens are increasing, but nationally, rates remain low for the vaccines specifically recommended for preteens, according to 2008 estimates released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

“Vaccination coverage for teens is moving up, but much work remains,” said Melinda Wharton, M.D., Deputy Director of the CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “We have the most room for improvement for the vaccines that are recommended at 11 or 12 years of age, and for making sure that teens who are not immune to chickenpox receive the vaccine as recommended.”

The National Immunization Survey (NIS) estimates the proportion of teens aged 13 through 17 years who have received six recommended vaccines by the time they are surveyed. Three of these are recommended to be given at age 11 or 12 years: the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4), and, for girls, the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4). If missed at this age, the vaccines can be given in the teen years. The survey also covers three other vaccines, which are recommended to be given earlier in life: measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and varicella (chickenpox) vaccine. Preteens and teens should get all recommended doses of these vaccines if they missed them when they were younger. All doses are counted, no matter when they were received.

2008 National Immunization Survey Data Released

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August 12, 2009

School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity

School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity
By: Philip Gleason, Ronette Briefel, Ander Wilson, and Allison Hedley Dodd
Source: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

This study used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children’s Body Mass Index (BMI). School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants ate more low-nutrient energy-dense (LNED) baked goods and more calories at breakfast than did nonparticipants. National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants had lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and a lower percentage of calories from LNED foods and beverages than did nonparticipants. Overall, NSLP participation was not significantly related to students’ BMI, although participants were less likely to be overweight or obese than nonparticipants among Black students but more likely to be so among “other race” students. SBP participants had significantly lower BMI than did nonparticipants, possibly because SBP participants are more likely to eat breakfast and eat more at breakfast, spreading calorie intake more evenly over the course of the day.

This study was conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., under contract number 59-5000-6-0076. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of ERS or USDA.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:04 AM | Comments (0)

August 11, 2009

The Macroeconomic Implications of HIV and AIDS on Women's Time-tax Burdens

From Unpaid to Paid Care Work: The Macroeconomic Implications of HIV and AIDS on Women's Time-tax Burdens
By: Rania Antonopoulos and Taun N. Toay
Source: Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Working Papers

This paper considers public employment guarantee programs in the context of South Africa as a means to address the nexus of poverty, unemployment, and unpaid work burdens—all factors exacerbated by HIV/AIDS. It further discusses the need for gender informed public job creation in areas that mitigate the “time-tax” burdens of women, and examines a South African initiative to address social sector service delivery deficits within the government’s Expanded Public Works Programme. The authors highlight the need for well-designed employment guarantee programs—specifically, programs centered on community and home-based care—as a potential way to help offset the destabilizing effects of HIV/AIDS and endemic poverty. The paper concludes with results from macroeconomic simulations of such a program, using a social accounting matrix framework, and sets out implications for both participants and policymakers.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 01:35 PM | Comments (0)

August 04, 2009

Annual Medical Spending Attributable to Obesity: Payer- and Service-Specific Estimates

Annual Medical Spending Attributable to Obesity: Payer- and Service-Specific Estimates
By: Eric A. Finkelstein, Justin G. Trogdon, Joel W. Cohen, and William Dietz
Source: Health Affairs

ABSTRACT: In 1998 the medical costs of obesity were estimated to be as high as $78.5 billion, with roughly half financed by Medicare and Medicaid. This analysis presents updated estimates of the costs of obesity for the United States across payers (Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers), in separate categories for inpatient, non-inpatient, and prescription drug spending. We found that the increased prevalence of obesity is responsible for almost $40 billion of increased medical spending through 2006, including $7 billion in Medicare prescription drug costs. We estimate that the medical costs of obesity could have risen to $147 billion per year by 2008.

Full text (HTML)

Posted by ljridley at 02:25 PM | Comments (0)

July 24, 2009

Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food—Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress

Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food—Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress
By: Michele Ver Ploeg, Vince Breneman, Tracey Farrigan, Karen Hamrick, David Hopkins, Phil Kaufman, Biing-Hwan Lin, Mark Nord, Travis Smith, Ryan Williams, Kelly Kinnison, Carol Olander, Anita Singh, and Elizabeth Tuckermanty
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

This report fills a request for a study of food deserts—areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious food—from the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. The report summarizes findings of a national-level assessment of the extent and characteristics of food deserts, analysis of the consequences of food deserts, lessons learned from related Federal programs, and a discussion of policy options for alleviating the effects of food deserts. Overall, findings show that a small percentage of consumers are constrained in their ability to access affordable nutritious food because they live far from a supermarket or large grocery store and do not have easy access to transportation.

Table of contents
Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 11:03 AM | Comments (0)

July 21, 2009

Prevalence of Obesity Among Black, White, and Hispanic Adults

Differences in Prevalence of Obesity Among Black, White, and Hispanic Adults --- United States, 2006--2008
By: L Pan, B Sherry, AS Hunter, GE Rutledge, WH Dietz, and LS Balluz
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly

An overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate health disparities among racial/ethnic populations. To assess differences in prevalence of obesity among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, CDC analyzed data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys conducted during 2006--2008. Overall, for the 3-year period, 25.6% of non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics were obese. Non-Hispanic blacks (35.7%) had 51% greater prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics (28.7%) had 21% greater prevalence, when compared with non-Hispanic whites (23.7%). This pattern was consistent across most U.S. states. However, state prevalences varied substantially, ranging from 23.0% (New Hampshire) to 45.1% (Maine) for non-Hispanic blacks, from 21.0% (Maryland) to 36.7% (Tennessee) for Hispanics, and from 9.0% (District of Columbia [DC]) to 30.2% (West Virginia) for non-Hispanic whites. Given the overall high prevalence of obesity and the significant differences among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, effective policies and environmental strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity are needed for all populations and geographic areas, but particularly for those populations and areas disproportionally affected by obesity.

Full text (HTML)
Full text of journal issue, 58(27) (PDF)

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July 14, 2009

A spatial evaluation of socio demographics surrounding National Priorities List sites in Florida using a distance-based approach

A spatial evaluation of socio demographics surrounding National Priorities List sites in Florida using a distance-based approach
By: Greg Kearney and Gebre-Egziabher Kiros
Source: International Journal of Health Geographics

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, various spatial techniques have been demonstrated using geographical information systems (GIS) to adequately estimate and characterize inequities of minority populations living near environmentally hazardous facilities. However, these methods have produced mixed results. In this study, we use recently developed variations of the "distance based" approach to spatially evaluate and compare demographic and socioeconomic disparities surrounding the worst hazardous waste sites in Florida.

METHODS: We used data from the 2000 US Census Bureau and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to identify selected socio and economic variables within one (1) mile of 71 National Priorities List (NPL) or Superfund sites in Florida. ArcMap (ESRI, v. 9.2) was used to map the centroid locations of each of the NPL sites as well as identify and estimate the number of host and non-host tracts. The unit of analysis in this study was at the census tract level. Logistic regression (SAS v9.1.3) was used to determine if race/ethnicity and socioeconomic indicators are significant predictors of the location of NPL sites.

RESULTS: There were significant differences in race/ethnicity composition and socio-economic factors between NPL host census tracts and non-host census tracts in Florida. The percentages of Blacks (OR = 5.7, p < 0.001), the percentage of Hispanic/Latino (OR = 5.84, p < 0.001), and percent employed in blue collar occupations (OR = 2.7, p < 0.01) were significant predictors of location of NPL facilities. CONCLUSION: The recently developed distance-based method supports previous studies and suggests that race and ethnicity play substantial roles in where hazardous facilities are located in Florida. Recommendations include using distance-based methods to evaluate socio and demographic characteristics surrounding other less known environmental hazardous facilities, such as landfills, or Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) sites.

Full text (PDF)

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July 10, 2009

Obesity Among U.S. Adults Continues to Rise

Obesity Among U.S. Adults Continues to Rise
Source: Centers for Disease Control

The proportion of U.S. adults who are obese increased to 26.1 percent in 2008 compared to 25.6 percent in 2007. The data come from CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state-based phone survey that collects health information from adults aged 18 and over.

In six states – Alabama, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia – adult obesity prevalence was 30 percent or more. Thirty-two states, including those six, had obesity prevalence of 25 percent or more. Only one state, Colorado, had a prevalence of obesity less than 20 percent. But no state showed a significant decrease in obesity prevalence from 2007 to 2008.

More than 400,000 U.S. adults were surveyed in the 2008 BRFSS, which is the world’s largest telephone health survey. To assess obesity prevalence, survey respondents are asked to provide their height and weight, which is used to calculate their body mass index (BMI). A person is considered obese if they have a BMI of 30 or above.

“Obesity is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. As obesity increases among all age groups, we are seeing chronic diseases in much younger adults compared to a few decades ago,” said Dr. William Dietz, director, CDC’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.
“For example, we now see young adults who suffer from heart disease risk factors and other conditions such as type 2 diabetes that were unheard of in the past.”

The 2008 BRFSS obesity data indicate that none of the 50 states or the District of Columbia has achieved the Healthy People 2010 goal of reducing obesity prevalence to 15 percent or less.

“The latest BRFSS survey data show that the obesity problem in this country is getting worse,” said Liping Pan, CDC epidemiologist and lead author of the 2008 BRFSS obesity map analysis. “If this trend continues we will likely see increases in health care costs for obesity related diseases.”

For more information on obesity trends, including an animated map, visit www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html.

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Selection, Wear, and Tear

Selection, Wear, and Tear: The Health of Hispanics and Hispanic Immigrants in the United States
By: Ricardo Basurto-Davila
Source: RAND Corporation, PRGS Dissertations

Among the factors that complicate the study of Hispanic health are data artifacts and cultural differences that originate from different degrees of assimilation. This dissertation provides a better understanding of the issues surrounding the health of Hispanics in general, and of Hispanic immigrants in particular. The author examines differences in health status between non-Hispanic Whites, Mexican Americans, and Mexican immigrants, and proposes an index of biological risk. He finds indirect evidence supporting the “healthy migrant” hypothesis, which states that emigrants are positively selected in their health status from the population of their countries of origin. Two hypotheses explaining the decline in immigrant health are consistent with the author's results: (1) the “life-course” hypothesis, which states that the deterioration of immigrant health status is a result of the cumulative negative effect of the adversities associated with the process of migration, and (2) the “regression to the mean” hypothesis, which maintains that immigrants self-select on health at the time of migration, but over time their health converges to the average health levels in their home countries.

Full Document (PDF)

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June 24, 2009

Fathers’ Alcohol Use and Substance Use among Adolescents

Fathers' Alcohol Use and Substance Use among Adolescents
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies

Highlights:

In 2006-2007, almost one in twelve (7.9 percent) fathers living with adolescents aged 12 to 17 had an alcohol use disorder, and 68.1 percent used alcohol in the past year but did not have an alcohol use disorder. The rate of past year alcohol use among adolescents was lower for those who lived with a father who did not use alcohol in the past year than for those who lived with a father who used alcohol but did not have an alcohol use disorder and for those who lived with a father with an alcohol use disorder (21.1 vs. 33.2 and 38.8 percent, respectively). The percentage of adolescents using illicit drugs in the past year increased with the level of paternal alcohol use, with illicit drug use reported by 14.0 percent of adolescents who lived with a father who did not use alcohol in the past year, 18.4 percent of those who lived with a father who used alcohol but did not have an alcohol use disorder, and 24.2 percent of those who lived with a father with an alcohol use disorder.

HTML format (contains the data table that was used to construct each figure; this data table is not found in printed or PDF version)

PDF format (recommended for printing)

Posted by ljridley at 02:34 PM | Comments (0)

June 12, 2009

Two New Reports on Health Disparities

Sizable Health Disparities Evident In Every State Between Women of Different Racial and Ethnic Groups: New State-Level Data Show Disparities Vary Widely Across States
Source: Kaiser Family Foundation

 A decade after U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher called for the elimination of racial disparities in health, women of color in every state continue to fare worse than white women on a variety of measures of health, health care access and other social determinants of health according to a new study by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

News Release; Full Report (PDF)

HHS Secretary Sebelius Releases New Report on Health Disparities
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Reform.gov

“Minorities and low income Americans are more likely to be sick and less likely to get the care they need,” Secretary Sebelius said. “These disparities have plagued our health system and our country for too long. Now, it’s time for Democrats and Republicans to come together to pass reforms this year that help reduce disparities and give all Americans the care they need and deserve.”

Full report

Posted by ljridley at 10:19 AM | Comments (0)

May 14, 2009

Retirement Decisions of Women and Men in Response to Their Own and Spousal Health

Retirement Decisions of Women and Men in Response to Their Own and Spousal Health
By: Serhii Ilchuk
Source: RAND, PRGS Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact of individual and spousal health on the retirement decisions of both spouses in dual-earner families. The author uses survival analysis techniques to analyze eight biennial waves of a nationally representative panel survey of the U.S. population over age 50. Of the various causes of early retirement, the onset of work disability or functional disability has the biggest effect, followed by major health events and chronic illnesses. The onset of a husband's work disability can lead to an earlier age of retirement not only for the husband himself but also, through joint retirement, for his wife. The author also calculates cost-of-illness estimates for indirect costs (productivity lost through an early retirement) of different health conditions at the individual and societal levels, and estimates total family productivity lost due to the spouse's work disability.

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:44 AM | Comments (0)

WIC and the Battle Against Childhood Overweight

WIC and the Battle Against Childhood Overweight
By: Michele Ver Ploeg
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

One of the most worrisome aspects of the growing tide of obesity in the United States is the high rate of overweight among children. Over one in five young children, ages 2 to 5, are at risk of being overweight. The number of children at risk of being overweight has grown in the past two decades, as has the number of young children whose families participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Are these increases connected? The answer appears to be “No.” However, being from a low-income family, especially a low-income, Mexican-American family, does raise the probability of a child’s being at risk for overweight. This brief examines trends in the relationship between WIC participation and weight status by updating the results of Food and Nutrition Assistance Programs and Obesity: 1976-2002 (ERR-48) to include data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:36 AM | Comments (0)

A State-by-State Look at Adult Health

Reaching America's Health Potential: A State-by-State Look at Adult Health
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

This chartbook, released by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to Build a Healthier America, provides state and national data on self-reported adult health status. These data illustrate a consistent and striking pattern of incremental improvements in health with increasing levels of educational attainment: As levels of education rise, health improves.

Chartbook (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:32 AM | Comments (0)

Health Care in Rural America

HHS Releases New Report: Hard Times in the Heartland: Health Care in Rural America
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Hard Times in the Heartland indicates that nearly 50 million people in rural America face challenges accessing health care. Not only do these Americans face higher rates of poverty, they report more health problems, are more likely to be uninsured, and have less access to a primary health care providers than do Americans living in urban areas. The report notes:

* Nearly one in five of the uninsured -- 8.5 million people -- live in rural areas.
* Rural residents pay on average for 40 percent of their health care costs out of their own pocket, compared with the urban share of one-third.
* In a multi-state survey, one in five insured farmers had medical debt.

Full report (HTML)
Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:20 AM | Comments (0)

May 04, 2009

More Than 1 in 10 Children Live with a Substance Abusing Parent

Study: More Than 1 in 10 Children Live with a Substance Abusing Parent

Almost 12 percent of children under the age of 18 years of age live with at least one parent who was dependent on or abused alcohol or an illicit drug during the past year, according to a report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The report is based on national data from 2002 to 2007.

Findings for Children Living with Substance-Dependent or Substance-Abusing Parents: 2002 to 2007 are drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual nationwide survey of persons aged 12 and older. This report focused on questions asked of 87,656 parents aged 18 and older about their substance dependence and abuse.

* HTML format (508 compliant & contains the data table that was used to construct each figure; this data table is not found in printed or PDF version)

* PDF format (256 KB, recommended for printing)

Posted by ljridley at 02:24 PM | Comments (0)

February 27, 2009

Health, United States, 2008

Health, United States, 2008
From the Center for Disease Control

Press Release:

Health Habits of Adults Aged 18-29 Highlighted in Report on Nation′s Health

Young adults in the United States aged 18-29 face a number of health challenges, including increases in obesity, high injury rates, and lack of insurance coverage compared to older adults, according to the latest report on the nation′s health.

Health, United States: 2008 is the 32nd annual edition of the report prepared by CDC′s National Center for Health Statistics, and includes a compilation of health data from a number of sources within the federal government and in the private sector. The report uses the most current data available at the time of publication.

This year′s edition features a special section on adults aged 18 to 29, a group making many life choices including decisions about education, marriage, childbearing, and health behaviors such as tobacco and alcohol use, which will affect both their future economic and health status.

Highlights of the report:

* Obesity rates have tripled among young adults in the past three decades, from 8 percent in 1971-1974 to 24 percent in 2005-2006.
* In 2006, 29 percent of young men were current cigarette smokers, compared to 21 percent of young adult women. Between 1997 and 2006, the percentage of women 18–29 years of age who currently smoked cigarettes declined nearly 20 percent. Current smoking did not decline significantly among young men.
* In 2005, unintentional injuries or accidents, homicide, and suicide accounted for 70 percent of deaths among young adults 18–29 years of age. Three-quarters of the 47,000 deaths in this age group occurred among young men. Young adults also have the highest rate of injury-related emergency department visits of all age groups.
* In 1999–2004, almost 9 percent of adults aged 20–29 reported having major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, or panic disorder in the past 12 months.
* In 2006, adults aged 20–24 were more likely to be uninsured (34 percent) than those aged 18–19 (21 percent) and 25–29 (29 percent).
* In 2004–2006, 17 percent of adults aged 18–29 reported needing but not receiving one or more of the following services in the past year because they could not afford them: medical care, prescription medicines, mental health care, or eyeglasses.

The full report contains 151 data tables in addition to the special feature on young adults. The tables cover the spectrum of health topics, serving as a comprehensive snapshot of the nation′s health.

Other highlights:

* In 2006, American men could expect to live 3.6 years longer, and women 1.9 years longer, than they did in 1990. Death rates from heart disease, stroke and cancer have continued to decline in recent years.
* Sixty-five percent of men and 80 percent of women aged 75 and older reported having high blood pressure or were taking high blood pressure medication in 2003–2006, compared to about 36 percent of adults aged 45–54.
* The proportion of the population with high cholesterol levels has been dropping, in large part due to increased use of cholesterol-lowering drugs. In 2003–2006, 16 percent of adults had high cholesterol. Women aged 55 and over were much more likely to have high cholesterol than their male counterparts.
* Approximately 25 percent of adults aged 60 and over had diabetes in 2003-2006.
* Obesity rates do not appear to be increasing as rapidly as they did in past decades, but remain high, with over a third of adults age 20 and over considered to be obese in 2005–2006.

Preliminary Health, United States, 2008 Website
Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:03 AM | Comments (0)

January 30, 2009

Troubling Trend in Teen Birthrates Seen in New Federal Government Data

From the Guttmacher Institute

From the early 1990s through the early 2000s, rates of teen pregnancy, birth and abortion in the United States all declined dramatically—primarily but not exclusively because of increased and more effective contraceptive use among sexually active teens. These declines have since stalled, however, and new data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) indicate that teen birthrates are on the rise. NCHS reports a 3% national increase between 2005 and 2006 (from 40.5 to 41.9 births per 1,000 females aged 15–19). This trend is reflected in data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey that show recent-year declines in both teens’ contraceptive use and their delaying of first sex.

Posted by yanfu at 11:39 AM | Comments (0)

November 19, 2008

Cigarette Smoking Among Adults

Cigarette Smoking Among Adults --- United States, 2007
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Fewer U.S. adults smoke, but cigarette smoking continues to impose substantial health and financial costs on society, according to new data from CDC.

An estimated 19.8 percent of U.S. adults (43.4 million people), were current smokers in 2007, down from 20.8 percent in 2006, according to a study in CDC?s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, released in advance of the Great American Smokeout. However, based on the current rate of decline, it is unlikely that the national health objective of reducing the prevalence of adult cigarette smoking to 12 percent or lower will be met by 2010.

Smoking causes at least 30 percent of all cancer deaths, including more than 80 percent of lung cancer deaths, and 80 percent of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is responsible for early cardiovascular disease and death. As a result, about half of all long-term smokers, particularly those who began smoking as teens, die prematurely, many in middle age.

Posted by ljridley at 11:12 AM | Comments (0)

October 28, 2008

CDC Releases New Infant Mortality Data

CDC Releases New Infant Mortality Data

The United States ranked 29th in the world in infant mortality in 2004, compared to 27th in 2000, 23rd in 1990 and 12th in 1960, according to a new report from CDC?s National Center for Health Statistics. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.78 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2004, the latest year that data are available for all countries. Infant mortality rates were generally lowest (below 3.5 per 1,000) in selected Scandinavian (Sweden, Norway, Finland) and East Asian (Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore) countries. Twenty-two countries had infant mortality rates below 5.0 in 2004.


Posted by yanfu at 10:58 AM | Comments (0)

October 13, 2008

America's Health Starts With Healthy Children: How Do States Compare?

Across the country and within every state, there are substantial shortfalls in the health of children based on their family’s income and education, says a new report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission to Build a Healthier America. The report is the first to rank states on infant mortality and children’s health status based on key social factors, and it shows that as parent’s income and levels of education rise, children’s health improves.

Posted by yanfu at 03:35 PM | Comments (0)

September 23, 2008

Trends in the Characteristics of Women Obtaining Abortions, 1974 to 2004

News from the Guttmacher Institute

The rate of abortion in the United States is at its lowest level since 1974, having declined 33% from a peak of 29 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 in 1980 to 20 per 1,000 in 2004. However, this overall trend masks large disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion across demographic subgroups, according to Trends in the Characteristics of Women Obtaining Abortions, 1974 to 2004.

Posted by yanfu at 10:54 AM | Comments (0)

August 19, 2008

HIV/AIDS: Treatment and Prevention Exchange Vows at International Conference

HIV/AIDS: Treatment and Prevention Exchange Vows at International Conference
Science 15 August 2008: 902-903.

Summary: AIDS researchers have long argued that HIV prevention and treatment efforts should go hand in hand, but they rarely do. Their fickle relationship received intense scrutiny at the XVII International AIDS Conference held in Mexico City last week.

Posted by yanfu at 03:21 PM | Comments (0)

August 13, 2008

Approaching Health Disparities From a Population Perspective

Approaching Health Disparities From a Population Perspective: The National Institutes of Health Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities

Abstract:
Addressing health disparities has been a national challenge for decades. The National Institutes of Health–sponsored Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities are the first federal initiative to support transdisciplinary multilevel research on the determinants of health disparities. Their novel research approach combines population, clinical, and basic science to elucidate the complex determinants of health disparities. The centers are partnering with community-based, public, and quasi-public organizations to disseminate scientific findings and guide clinical practice in communities. In turn, communities and public health agents are shaping the research. The relationships forged through these complex collaborations increase the likelihood that the centers’ scientific findings will be relevant to communities and contribute to reductions in health disparities.

from American Journal of Public Health 2008 98 (9) 1608-1615

Posted by yanfu at 04:37 PM | Comments (0)

August 06, 2008

XVII International AIDS Conference Mexico City August 2008

AIDS 2008 will provide many opportunities for the presentation of important new scientific research and for productive, structured dialogue on the major challenges facing the global response to AIDS.

Posted by yanfu at 04:38 PM | Comments (0)

News from Guttmacher Institute

Publicly funded family planning clinics prevent 1.4 million unentended pregnancies earch year.

Publicly funded family planning clinics provide contraceptive services to approximately seven million women each year. Without these services, the annual number of unintended pregnancies and abortions in the United States would be almost 50% higher. In other words, 1.4 million unintended pregnancies and 600,000 abortions are averted each year because of these services, according to a new Guttmacher Institute analysis.

Posted by yanfu at 04:30 PM | Comments (0)

July 31, 2008

Disability and Health in the United States, 2001-2005

Disability and Health in the United States, 2001-2005
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (CDC)

Disability and Health in the United States, 2001–2005 examines health-related differences between disabled and nondisabled noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 years and over using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The basic actions difficulty measure of disability used in this report identifies noninstitutionalized adults with respondent-reported difficulties in movement or sensory, emotional, or cognitive functioning that is associated with some health problem. The complex activity limitation measure of disability identifies noninstitutionalized adults with respondent-reported limitations in self-care tasks (activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)) work limitations, or limitations or restrictions in the ability to participate fully in social activities.

Posted by yanfu at 10:55 AM | Comments (0)

International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Key Changes to U.S. Programs and Funding

International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Key Changes to U.S. Programs and Funding
Kellie Moss
Source: Congressional Research Service (Open CRS Network)

Summary:

The United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-25) authorizes $15 billion for U.S. global efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria from FY2004 through FY2008. It also authorizes the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to oversee U.S. government efforts to combat HIV/AIDS internationally. These efforts to combat HIV/AIDS implement the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), a program proposed by President Bush in January 2003. President Bush has requested $30 billion for the reauthorization of PEPFAR from FY2009 through FY2013, estimating it would support HIV/AIDS treatments for 2.5 million people, the prevention of more than 12 million new HIV infections, and care for more than 12 million HIV-affected people, including 5 million orphans and vulnerable children. Congress is considering reauthorization of U.S. international HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria programs through FY2013 for $50 billion. H.R. 5501, the Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008, and S. 2731, a similar bill with the same title, would increase funding for U.S. efforts to fight HIV/AIDS, U.S. contributions to the Global Fund to Combat AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund), and U.S. global efforts to combat tuberculosis and malaria. H.R. 5501 and S. 2731 propose a number of changes to U.S. international HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria programs. The bills would: add Vietnam to the list of Focus Countries; remove the 33% spending requirement on abstinence prevention efforts; establish a Global Malaria Coordinator within the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID); set targets for coverage of pregnant women and the care of HIV-infected children; and support the sustainability of health care systems in affected countries. There are some differences between the two bills. H.R. 5501 inserts family planning program language, maintains prevention and care spending directives, and adds 14 countries in the Caribbean and three countries in sub-Saharan Africa to the list of Focus Countries. S. 2731 proposes the use of compacts or framework agreements between the United States and each country receiving HIV/AIDS funds under the reauthorization. It eliminates Immigration and Nationality Act language that bars foreign nationals with HIV/AIDS from entering the United States. This report will discuss changes in coordination and funding for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria programs proposed in H.R. 5501 and S. 2731. Some questions remain about whether programs to combat tuberculosis and malaria should be further defined and if additional reporting requirements, distinct leadership authorities, funding and program guidelines, project timetables, and coordination requirements with HIV/AIDS programs are needed. This report will be updated as events warrant.

Full report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:46 AM | Comments (0)

July 29, 2008

Adult Obesity Trends

Latest CDC Data Show More Americans Report Being Obese
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

The proportion of U.S. adults who self report they are obese increased nearly 2 percent between 2005 and 2007, according to a report in today?s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). An estimated 25.6 percent of U.S. adults reported being obese in 2007 compared to 23.9 percent in 2005, an increase of 1.7 percent. The report also finds that none of the 50 states or the District of Columbia has achieved the Healthy People 2010 goal to reduce obesity prevalence to 15 percent or less.

In three states – Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee – the prevalence of self-reported obesity among adults age 18 or older was above 30 percent. Colorado had the lowest obesity prevalence at 18.7 percent. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or above. BMI is calculated using height and weight. For example, a 5-foot, 9-inch adult who weighs 203 pounds would have a BMI of 30, thus putting this person into the obese category.

State-Specific Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults — United States, 2007 (Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report)
For more information on obesity trends, including an animated map, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/maps

Posted by ljridley at 11:01 AM | Comments (0)

July 24, 2008

Inequalities in Young People's Health

HBSC international report from the 2005/2006 survey
Candace Currie, Saoirse Nic Gabhainn, Emmanuelle Godeau, Chris Roberts, Rebecca Smith, Dorothy Currie, Will Picket, Matthias Richter, Antony Morgan and Vivian Barnekow
Source: World Health Organization

This international report is the fourth from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, and the most comprehensive. It presents the key findings on patterns of health among young people aged 11, 13 and 15 years in 41 countries and regions across the WHO European Region and North America in 2005/2006. Its theme is health inequalities: quantifying the gender, age, geographic and socioeconomic dimensions of health differentials. Its aim is to highlight where these inequalities exist, to inform and influence policy and practice and to help improve health for all young people.

The report clearly shows that, while the health and well-being of many young people give cause for celebration, sizeable minorities are experiencing real and worrying problems related to overweight and obesity, self-esteem, life satisfaction, substance misuse and bullying. The report provides reliable data that health systems in Member States can use to support and encourage sectors such as education, social inclusion and housing, to achieve their primary goals and, in so doing, benefit young people’s health. Policy-makers and professionals in the participating countries should listen closely to the voices of their young people and ensure that these drive their efforts to put in place the circumstances – social, economic, health and educational – within which young people can thrive and prosper.

Full document (PDF)
; Chapters

Posted by ljridley at 09:20 AM | Comments (0)

Wealth Without Health

What Good Is Wealth Without Health? The Effect of Health on the Marginal Utility of Consumption
Amy Finkelstein, Erzo F.P. Luttmer and Matthew J. Notowidigdo
Source: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government Working Paper

We estimate how the marginal utility of consumption varies with health. To do so, we develop a simple model in which the impact of health on the marginal utility of consumption can be estimated from data on permanent income, health, and utility proxies. We estimate the model using the Health and Retirement Study’s panel data on the elderly and near-elderly, and proxy for utility with measures of subjective well-being. We find robust evidence that the marginal utility of consumption declines as health deteriorates. Our central estimate is that a one-standard¬deviation increase in the number of chronic diseases is associated with an 11 percent decline in the marginal utility of consumption relative to this marginal utility when the individual has no chronic diseases. The 95 percent confidence interval allows us to reject declines in marginal utility of less than 2 percent or more than 17 percent. Point estimates from a wide range of alternative specifications tend to lie within this confidence interval. We present some simple, illustrative calibration results that suggest that state dependence of the magnitude we estimate can have a substantial effect on important economic problems such as the optimal level of health insurance benefits and the optimal level of life-cycle savings.

Download PDF

Posted by ljridley at 09:06 AM | Comments (0)

July 22, 2008

Ecological Predictors for Childhood Obesity

Ecological Predictors and Developmental Outcomes of Persistent Childhood Overweight
Sara Gable, Jo Britt-Rankin, and Jennifer L. Krull
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

Child obesity poses short- and long-term health risks and may have negative social and economic consequences in adulthood. This study uses data on 8,000 children followed from kindergarten through third grade as part of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class to examine predictors of persistent childhood overweight and associated academic and socioemotional outcomes. Results show that socioeconomic status, gender, race, and behavioral and environmental factors influence risk of persistent overweight. The odds of children being overweight increased 3 percent for each additional hour of television that they watched per week and 9 percent for each family meal per week that they did not experience. Overweight children progressed less than their nonoverweight peers did in reading and math achievement, with overweight appearing to precede academic difficulties, and were rated lower on academic and socioemotional factors by their teachers and themselves. Academic and social costs should be considered in assessing costs of childhood overweight and potential benefits of overweight prevention.

Full Report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 02:10 PM | Comments (0)

July 17, 2008

Spatially referenced HIV data

The HIVmapper is an interactive GIS mapping tool which allows users to quickly create maps based on MEASURE DHS data found in the HIV/AIDS Survey Indicators Database.

http://www.hivmapper.com/

Related to this is an HIV Spatial Data Repository:

http://www.hivspatialdata.net/

Both of these links can be found from the main DHS website:

http://www.measuredhs.com/

Posted by lisan at 01:43 PM | Comments (0)

July 10, 2008

Opportunity to comment on demographic measures

The PhenX project is an initiative to integrate genetic and epidemiological research. One of the working groups in this project is a Demographics Working group.

You can comment on the measurement of such demographic concepts as relationship, race/ethnicity, origins, marital status, income/poverty/status, education, labor force, health insurance/health care. You can also suggest other concepts for inclusion.

Link to Demographic Concepts Survey

The comment period ends August 1, 2008.

If you would like to find out more about the project or how to be involved in it, contact Dr. Carol M. Hamilton at chamilton@phenx.org.

The Demographic Working group contact is Michael Phillips from RTI (mjp@rti.org).

Posted by lisan at 02:57 PM | Comments (0)

Substance Use and Mental Health Issues

New Report Pinpoints Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Individual Localities Throughout the Nation
Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Survey reveals wide variations and unexpected patterns of substance use and mental illness across more than 340 localities across the United States

Mental health and substance abuse problems affect every local community throughout America – but in unique, and sometimes surprising ways, according to a report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The report offers highly detailed analyses of the substance abuse and mental health problems occurring within these smaller geographical areas.

For example, one of the smaller geographical (or substate) areas in the survey --Utah’s Salt Lake and Weber-Morgan Counties – have among the nation’s highest levels of persons aged 12 or older using painkillers for non-medical reasons. In these two counties, levels were as high as 7.92 percent. In contrast, areas of the District of Columbia had some of the nation’s lowest levels of this type of substance abuse, as low as 2.48 percent in parts of the city.

Yet the exact same communities in Utah had the among the nation’s lowest levels of underage binge alcohol use in the past month (as low as 8.72 percent of those age 12 to 20). The District of Columbia had equally low levels in some parts of the city, but other parts had some of the nation’s highest levels (as high as 39.01 percent among this age group).

“The findings reveal that the nation’s substance abuse and the mental health problems are fundamentally local in character and might be addressed directly most effectively at that level,? said SAMHSA Administrator Terry Cline, Ph.D. “This report provides local public health authorities sharper insight into the nature and scope of the substance abuse and mental health problems affecting their communities.?

The report, Substate Estimates from the 2004-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, measures and analyzes 23 substance abuse and mental health-related behavior levels in 345 substate regions representing all 50 states and the District of Columbia. In most states, the substate regions are defined in terms of counties or groups of counties. In a few states, these areas are defined in terms of census tracts. The results were based on the combined data from the 2004 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and involved responses from 203,870 people age 12 or older throughout the United States.

Report:

* PDF format (recommended for printing)
* HTML format (contains additional tables not found in printed or PDF versions)

Posted by ljridley at 02:41 PM | Comments (0)

Health Systems in China and India

A Comparison of the Health Systems in China and India
Sai Ma, Neeraj Sood
RAND Occasional Paper

The world's two most populous countries, China and India, are undergoing dramatic demographic, societal, and economic transformations. However, the health status of residents of China and India still lags behind relative to other populations, and the health gains in each country have been uneven across subpopulations. Although they have achieved substantial advances in life expectancy and disease prevention since the middle of the 20th century, the Chinese and Indian health systems provide little protection against financial risk, and patient satisfaction is a lower priority than it should be. This paper compares the health systems of China and India to determine what approaches to improving health in these two countries do and do not work. In particular, the authors compare the health systems in China and India along three dimensions: policy levers, intermediate outcomes, and ultimate ends. The authors conclude that both countries must (1) restructure health care financing to reduce the burden of out-of-pocket medical care costs on individual patients; (2) increase access to care, especially in rural areas; (3) reduce dependence on fee-for-service contracts that promote overutilization of medical care; (4) build capacity for addressing and monitoring emerging diseases; and (5) match hospital capabilities with local needs.

Full Document (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 02:14 PM | Comments (0)

Early Detection of Chronic Diseases

Early Detection of Chronic Diseases: Disparities, Uncertainties and Behavioral Implications
By: Lu Shi
Source: Pardee RAND Graduate School Dissertation

This dissertation consists of three papers about early detection of chronic diseases. The first paper analyzes smoking patterns among subjects in the chest X-ray lung cancer screening program of the Mayo Lung Project. The second addresses the fact that in the Mayo Lung Project, chest X-ray screening increased lung cancer survival for those who screened positive but delivered no significant reduction in the rate of lung cancer mortality. The third explores the association between race/ethnicity and the type of testing facility where one gets tested for HIV serostatus in Los Angeles County. Together, the papers contribute to the field of medical screening and diagnosis from three novel viewpoints: utilizing testing service as a commodity choice in different racial/ethnic groups, simulation-based interpretation of lung cancer screening trials, and the possible behavioral effects of the screening experience.

PDF

Posted by ljridley at 09:49 AM | Comments (0)

July 07, 2008

Cigarette Use Among High School Students — United States, 1991–2007

Cigarette Use Among High School Students — United States, 1991–2007
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

The findings in this report show that current cigarette use among high school students declined from 1997 to 2003, but rates remained stable from 2003 to 2007. This trend is consistent with 30-day cigarette use trends reported from the Monitoring the Future survey (an ongoing national study of the behaviors, attitudes, and values of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students), which also show declines starting in the late 1990s and stable rates more recently.

Posted by yanfu at 12:21 PM | Comments (0)

July 03, 2008

Mental Health Distress Post-Katrina

Prevalence and Predictors of Mental Health Distress Post-Katrina: Findings From the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health Study
David Abramson, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Richard Garfield, and Irwin Redlener
Source: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 2(2)

Abstract

Background: Catastrophic disasters often are associated with massive structural, economic, and population devastation; less understood are the long-term mental health consequences. This study measures the prevalence and predictors of mental health distress and disability of hurricane survivors over an extended period of recovery in a postdisaster setting.

Methods: A representative sample of 1077 displaced or greatly affected households was drawn in 2006 using a stratified cluster sampling of federally subsidized emergency housing settings in Louisiana and Mississippi, and of Mississippi census tracts designated as having experienced major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Two rounds of data collection were conducted: a baseline face-to-face interview at 6 to 12 months post-Katrina, and a telephone follow-up at 20 to 23 months after the disaster. Mental health disability was measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12, version 2 mental component summary score. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted examining socioeconomic, demographic, situational, and attitudinal factors associated with mental health distress and disability.

Results: More than half of the cohort at both baseline and follow-up reported significant mental health distress. Self-reported poor health and safety concerns were persistently associated with poorer mental health. Nearly 2 years after the disaster, the greatest predictors of poor mental health included situational characteristics such as greater numbers of children in a household and attitudinal characteristics such as fatalistic sentiments and poor self-efficacy. Informal social support networks were associated significantly with better mental health status. Housing and economic circumstances were not independently associated with poorer mental health.

Conclusions: Mental health distress and disability are pervasive issues among the US Gulf Coast adults and children who experienced long-term displacement or other serious effects as a result of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. As time progresses postdisaster, social and psychological factors may play greater roles in accelerating or impeding recovery among affected populations. Efforts to expand disaster recovery and preparedness policies to include long-term social re-engagement efforts postdisaster should be considered as a means of reducing mental health sequelae.

HTML; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 10:37 AM | Comments (0)

Tobacco Sales to Minors Drop During Past 11 Years

Federal State Program Continues to Report a Dramatic Nationwide Drop in Tobacco Sales to Minors During the Past 11 Years
Source: Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (HHS)

Illegal sales of tobacco products to underage youth have reached an all-time low under the Synar Amendment program, a federal-state partnership program aimed at ending illegal tobacco sales to minors, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration announced today.

The national average of illegal tobacco sales to minors has dropped since the program’s inception from 40.1 percent in fiscal year 1997 to 10.5 percent in fiscal year 2007, the report said.

Nearly all states and the District of Columbia have achieved a major Synar program goal – having 20 percent or less of their state’s tobacco product retailers engaging in illegal sales of tobacco to minors. These levels stand in sharp contrast with the situation 11 years ago at the Synar program’s inception, when only four states met this goal.

More than half of the states were able to drive down levels of illegal retail sales of tobacco to minors to 10 percent or less in fiscal year 2007. Mississippi reported the nation’s lowest level of illegal sales of tobacco products to minors (3.2 percent), while Massachusetts reported the highest (22.7 percent).

The SAMHSA report notes that the successful implementation of the Synar Amendment program (named for the late U.S. Rep. Mike Synar of Oklahoma) relied on vigorous enforcement, supportive public policies and development of social climates discouraging youth tobacco use.

+ FY 2007 Annual Synar Reports: State Compliance (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:24 AM | Comments (0)

July 01, 2008

Health Care and Behavioral Economics

Health Care and Behavioral Economics
Source: Congressional Budget Office
CBO Director Peter Orszag’s presentation to the National Academy of Social Insurance

I suspect, on the basis of similar logic, that workers demand less efficiency from the health system than they would if they knew the full cost that they pay via forgone wages for coverage or if they knew the actual cost of the services being provided. I similarly suspect that making the underlying costs associated with employment-based insurance more transparent may prove to be quite important in containing health care costs. As transparency increases and workers see how much their income is being reduced for employers’ contributions and what those contributions are paying for, there may be a broader change in cost-consciousness that shifts demand. For workers and dependents with employment-based insurance, deductibles and copayments account for only about a fifth of their health care spending. The remainder comes from insurance premiums, only a quarter of which are paid directly by workers.

PDF of NASI speech

Posted by ljridley at 11:17 AM | Comments (0)

Potential mediating factors in the IQ–mortality relationship

IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age and later all-cause mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study
Source: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
G D Batty, M J Shipley, L H Mortensen, S H Boyle, J Barefoot, M Grønbæk, C R Gale and I J Deary

Objective: To examine the role of potential mediating factors in explaining the IQ–mortality relation.

Design, setting and participants: A total of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel with IQ test results at entry into the service in late adolescence/early adulthood in the 1960/1970s (mean age at entry 20.4 years) participated in a telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985–6. They were then followed up for mortality experience for 15 years.

Main results: In age-adjusted analyses, higher IQ scores were associated with reduced rates of total mortality (hazard ratio (HR)per SD increase in IQ 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.81). This relation did not appear to be heavily confounded by early socioeconomic position or ethnicity. The impact of adjusting for some potentially mediating risk indices measured in middle age on the IQ–mortality relation (marital status, alcohol consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, blood glucose, body mass index, psychiatric and somatic illness at medical examination) was negligible (<10% attenuation in risk). Controlling for others (cigarette smoking, lung function) had a modest impact (10–17%). Education (0.79; 0.69 to 0.92), occupational prestige (0.77; 0.68 to 0.88) and income (0.86; 0.75 to 0.98) yielded the greatest attenuation in the IQ–mortality gradient (21–52%); after their collective adjustment, the IQ–mortality link was effectively eliminated (0.92; 0.79 to 1.07).

Conclusions: In this cohort, socioeconomic position in middle age might lie on the pathway linking earlier IQ with later mortality risk but might also partly act as a surrogate for cognitive ability.
PDF

Posted by ljridley at 11:01 AM | Comments (0)

June 23, 2008

Parent Awareness of Youth Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana

Parent Awareness of Youth Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana
Source: The NSDUH Report from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, April 24, 2008

- Youth substance use in the past year was generally higher within one-parent households than within two-parent households for both mother-child and father-child pairs and was generally highest among youth in father-child pairs within one-parent households.

- Parent awareness of youth use of cigarettes and alcohol in the past year increased with the youth's increasing age among both mother-child and father-child pairs.

- Rates of parent awareness of youth substance use in the past year were generally higher among mothers in mother-child pairs than among fathers in father-child pairs and were generally highest among mothers in mother-child pairs within one-parent households.

Full text (HTML)

Posted by ljridley at 01:26 PM | Comments (0)

June 18, 2008

American Eating and Drinking Patterns

American eating and drinking patterns
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
Contact: Karen Hamrick

On an average day in 2006, Americans age 15 and older spent 67 minutes eating and drinking as a “primary,? or main, activity, and 16 minutes eating and 42 minutes drinking (except plain water) as a secondary activity—that is, eating while engaged in another activity considered primary by the individual. Eight percent of the population spent 4.5 hours or more a day on eating/drinking as either a primary or secondary activity. About 9 percent of Americans’ secondary eating and drinking occurred while driving a vehicle, walking, or biking. Secondary eating or drinking was most frequently accompanied by socializing, relaxing, and leisure, which includes watching television.

Posted by ljridley at 02:48 PM | Comments (0)

June 05, 2008

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in 22 European Countries

Johan P. Mackenbach, Irina Stirbu, Albert-Jan R. Roskam, Maartje M. Schaap, Gwenn Menvielle, Mall Leinsalu, Anton E. Kunst
The European Union Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health

The New England Journal of Medicine - Volume 358:2468-2481 June 5, 2008

Available online

Posted by yanfu at 01:43 PM | Comments (0)

May 30, 2008

World Health Statistics 2008

World Health Statistics
Source: World Health Organization

World Health Statistics 2008 presents the most recent health statistics for WHO’s 193 Member States. This fourth edition includes 10 highlights in health statistics, as well as an expanded set of over 70 key health indicators. It includes, for the first time, trend data where the statistics are available and of acceptable quality.


Posted by yanfu at 04:36 PM | Comments (0)

May 29, 2008

Medicaid Care for Children

Medicaid Managed Care for Children in Child Welfare
Kamala Allen
Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc.

Children in the child welfare system have an extremely high prevalence of physical and behavioral health problems. This issue brief examines the complex physical and behavioral health care needs and associated costs for children in child welfare and outlines critical opportunities and challenges within Medicaid to better manage care for this high-risk, high-cost population.

PDF

Posted by ljridley at 04:13 PM | Comments (0)

State Children’s Health Insurance Program

Covering Uninsured Children in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program
Source: Congressional Budget Office (Testimony)

SCHIP has significantly reduced the number of low-income children who lack health insurance. According to the Congressional Budget Office’s (CBO’s) estimates, the portion of children in families with income between 100 percent and 200 percent of the poverty level who were uninsured fell by about 25 percent between 1996 (the year before SCHIP was enacted) and 2006. In contrast, the rate of uninsurance among higher-income children remained relatively stable during that period. The difference probably reflects the impact of the SCHIP program.

Posted by ljridley at 04:03 PM | Comments (0)

May 23, 2008

The Psychological Dimension of an Environmental Disaster

Enduring Mental Health Morbidity and Social Function Impairment in World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery and Cleanup Workers: The Psychological Dimension of an Environmental Health Disaster
Jeanne Mager Stellman, Rebecca P. Smith, Craig L. Katz, Vansh Sharma, Dennis S. Charney, Robin Herbert, Jacqueline Moline, Benjamin J. Luft, Steven Markowitz, Iris Udasin, Denise Harrison, Sherry Baron, Philip J. Landrigan, Stephen M. Levin, and Steven Southwick
Source: Environmental Health Perspectives

Workers’ service in 9/11 recovery operations is associated with chronic impairment of mental health and social functioning. Psychological distress and psychopathology in WTC workers greatly exceed population norms. Surveillance and treatment programs continue to be needed.

PDF

Posted by ljridley at 11:34 AM | Comments (0)

Inequalities in U.S. Death Rates

Widening of Socioeconomic Inequalities in U.S. Death Rates, 1993–2001
Ahmedin Jemal1, Elizabeth Ward, Robert N. Anderson, Taylor Murray, Michael J. Thun
Source: PLoS ONE

Socioeconomic inequalities in death rates from all causes combined widened from 1960 until 1990 in the U.S., largely because cardiovascular death rates decreased more slowly in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups. However, no studies have examined trends in inequalities using recent US national data.

PDF

Posted by ljridley at 10:01 AM | Comments (0)

May 02, 2008

Growing disparities in life expectancy

Congressional Budget Office brief looks at widening gap in life expectancy by SES and implications for Social Security and Medicare.

Posted by nebarr at 08:36 AM | Comments (0)

WHO Mortality Database updated Apr 14, 2008

Access to raw data files, necessary instructions, file structures, code reference tables, etc.

Posted by nebarr at 08:28 AM | Comments (0)

April 29, 2008

Sex selective abortions in India

Indian Prime Minister denounces Abortion of Females
Amelia Gentleman | NY TIMES
April 29, 2008

Story based on an article in Lancet:
Low male-to-female sex ratio of children born in India: national survey of 1.1 million households
Lancet 2006 (January): pages 211-218

Posted by lisan at 09:46 AM | Comments (0)

April 25, 2008

Call for Papers: Epidemiologic Approaches to Health Disparities

Epidemiologic Reviews, a sister publication of the American Journal of Epidemiology, is devoted to publishing comprehensive and critical reviews on specific themes once a year. The 2009 issue, to be published in the summer of 2009, will address the topic of health disparities.

Details at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/epirev/callforpapers.html

Posted by yanfu at 02:43 PM | Comments (0)

April 23, 2008

2007 Regional AIDS reports from UN

The Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has issued the 2007 AIDS epidemic update Regional Summaries.

Posted by yanfu at 03:03 PM | Comments (0)

Countdown to 2015: Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival

Countdown to 2015: Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival
Source: United Nations, et. al.

A new report, Countdown to 2015: Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival, finds that treatment for potentially fatal illnesses and other vital health services largely fail to reach women and children in need, despite some progress. The report, a collaborative effort of United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other institutions and individuals, tracks progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, to reduce child and maternal mortality respectively.

Posted by yanfu at 02:47 PM | Comments (0)

April 22, 2008

Declining Life Expectancy for Women in selected counties: US

The Reversal of Fortunes: Trends in County
Mortality and Cross-County Mortality Disparities
in the United States

Majid Ezzati1, Ari B. Friedman, Sandeep C. Kulkarni, Christopher J. L. Murray
PLOS Medicine
May 4, 2008

Posted by lisan at 08:42 AM | Comments (0)

April 21, 2008

CDC Report: Estimated Pregnancy Rates by Outcome for the United States, 1990-2004

Estimated Pregnancy Rates by Outcome for the United States, 1990-2004
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Pregnancy rates for women under age 25, including teenagers, in the United States declined in 2004 compared to 1990, according to a report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Posted by yanfu at 11:15 AM | Comments (0)

April 15, 2008

Health Disparities – Mammograms

Disparities: Wealth Factor Seen in Mammogram Rates
Eric Nagourney | NY TIMES
March 25, 2008

Article based on Williams, et.al. 2008. "Screening Mammography in Older Women: Effect of Wealth and Prognosis" Arch Intern Med. Vol 168 (March):514-520.

Posted by lisan at 04:53 AM | Comments (0)

Belly Fat and Dementia

Kaiser Permanente study shows that a larger abdomen in midlife increases risk of dementia

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-03/kpdo-kps031908.php

The press release is based on the following citation:
Whitmer, F. D. Gustafson, E. Barrett-Connor, M. Haan, E. Gunderson, K. Yaffe. 2008 . “Central Obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later.? Neurology.

Posted by lisan at 04:48 AM | Comments (0)

April 10, 2008

Parent-Reported Sleep Problems During Development

Parent-Reported Sleep Problems During Development and Self-reported Anxiety/Depression, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior Later in Life
Alice M. Gregory, Jan Van der Ende, Thomas A. Willis, and Frank C. Verhulst
Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Sleep problems are risk indicators of later emotional difficulties in childhood and adolescence and in adulthood, as well as across these developmental periods. Although most research, to date, has focused on symptoms of insomnia in association with emotional difficulties, there is emerging evidence that other sleep and sleep-related problems (referred to herein as sleep problems) may also be linked to subsequent difficulties that are not only emotional but also behavioral. Indeed, results of one study demonstrated that a composite of different sleep problems predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression, attention problems, and aggression later in life. For knowledge concerning links between sleep problems and later emotional and behavioral difficulties to be maximally beneficial to the physician, clarification of which particular sleep problems are associated with later difficulties is paramount. Toward this aim, this article documents associations between parental perceptions of 6 aspects of sleep (examined during development) and subsequent self-reported emotional and behavioral difficulties in a representative sample of 2076 participants from Zuid-Holland. This study is novel in allowing comparison of different types of sleep problems as predictors of different types of later behavioral and emotional problems. Based on previous research, associations between different aspects of sleep and different types of emotional and behavioral problems were expected, but hypotheses concerning specific patterns of association were considered premature.

Full text (HTML)

Posted by ljridley at 11:00 AM | Comments (0)

Short Sleep Duration in Infancy and Risk of Childhood Overweight

Authors: Elsie M. Taveras, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Emily Oken, Erica P. Gunderson, and Matthew W. Gillman
Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(4):305-311


Daily sleep duration of less than 12 hours during infancy appears to be a risk factor for overweight and adiposity in preschool-aged children.

Full text (HTML)

Posted by ljridley at 10:56 AM | Comments (0)

April 08, 2008

Essays on Environmental Determinants of Health Behaviors and Outcomes

RAND Dissertation
By: Khoa Dang Truong

This dissertation consists of four stand-alone essays that focus on alcohol and food environments. They examine the following: (1) Disparities in alcohol environments and their relationship to adolescent drinking. Nineteen percent of all expenditure on alcohol in 1999 was attributed to underage drinking. Alcohol outlets located in close proximity to homes are significantly associated with adolescents’ binge drinking and driving after drinking. (2) The spatial location of alcohol outlets and problem drinking among the adult population. There is consistent evidence of a concentration of alcohol retailers in minority and low-income neighborhoods in California. Some types of alcohol outlets are found to be associated with excess alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking among the adult population with indirect effects such as drunk driving and violent crime. (3) Weight gain trends across sociodemographic groups in the United States. Although sociodemographic disparities in obesity are well-documented, weight gain trend is quite similar across sociodemographic groups — probably due in part to broadly environmental factors such as transportation and community design. (4) Retail food environments. Retail food outlets are associated with individual obesity status. Improving the supply of and access to healthy food choices can play a role in the prevention of obesity.

Document Information; Full text (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 02:46 PM | Comments (0)

April 07, 2008

Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care

Use the links in the Atlas Data Tools menu at left to find state, region, and hospital-specific data. Download prepared tables from our Download page, or make your own tables and graphs using the Data Tools. Descriptions of the tools and step-by-step Help files can be found on the Data Tools page.

Posted by lisan at 09:57 PM | Comments (0)

Variation in Health Care Costs

Researchers Find Huge Variations in End-of-Life Treatment
Robert Pear | NY TIMES
April 7, 2008

Based on a report from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care
Tracking the Care of Patients with Severe Chronic Illness

Posted by lisan at 09:52 PM | Comments (0)

April 03, 2008

Food Stamps and Obesity: What Do We Know?

Food Stamps and Obesity: What Do We Know?
By Michele Ver Ploeg and Katherine Ralston
Economic Information Bulletin

Results from reviewed studies indicate that for most participants in the Food Stamp Program—children, nonelderly men, and the elderly—use of food stamp benefits does not result in an increase in either Body Mass Index (BMI) or the likelihood of being overweight or obese. However, for nonelderly women, who account for 28 percent of the food stamp caseload, some evidence suggests that participation in the Food Stamp Program may increase BMI and the probability of obesity. Different results for age and sex subgroups remain unexplained. Further, because food stamp benefits are issued to households, not individuals, mixed results across age and sex subgroups make it difficult to target policy alternatives to address potential weight gain among some participants while not affecting others in the household.
Summary Report (PDF) Full Report (PDF)

Posted by ljridley at 10:53 AM | Comments (0)

Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older

Authors: Nigel S. Beckett, et al.
Source: New England Journal of Medicine

Elevated blood pressure is common in persons 80 years of age or older, a group constituting the fastest-growing segment of the general population. HYVET provides unique evidence that hypertension treatment based on indapamide (sustained release), with or without perindopril, in the very elderly, aimed to achieve a target blood pressure of 150/80 mm Hg, is beneficial and is associated with reduced risks of death from stroke, death from any cause, and heart failure.

Abstract; PDF

Posted by ljridley at 10:25 AM | Comments (0)

March 31, 2008

The National Healthcare Disparities Report 2007

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) describes the quality of and access to care for multiple subgroups across the United States, and also represents a source of information for tracking the Nation’s progress over time. The observed disparities va ry by condition and population.

Posted by yanfu at 11:39 AM | Comments (0)

March 26, 2008

Neighborhod Safety and Exercise

Neighborhood Influences Exercise Levels
March 25, 2008
Washington Post

Article based on this study:

Wen, Ming, Christopher Browning and Kathleen Cagney. 2007. "Neighbourhood Deprivation, Social Capital and Regular Exercise During Adulthood: A Multilevel Study in Chicago." Urban Studies, Vol 44(13): 2651-2671

http://usj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/44/13/2651

A related article, based in Boston instead of Chicago:

Bennett, Gary, Lorna McNeill, Kathleen Wolin, Dustin Duncan, Elaine Puleo, and Karen Emmons. 2007. "Safe to Walk? Neighborhood Safety and Physical Activity among Public Housing Residents." PLoSMedicine (http://medicine.plosjournals.org).

http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0040306

Posted by lisan at 11:29 AM | Comments (0)

Long-term implications of premature births

Premature Birth has lasting effects study finds
Los Angeles Times
Thomas H. Maugh II
March 26, 2008

Article that the Los Angeles Times article is based on is:
Swamy, Geeta, Truls Ostbye, and Rolv Skjaerven. 2008 "Association of Preterm Birth with Long-Term Survival, Reproduction, and Next-Generation Preterm Birth." JAMA Vol 299 (12):1429-1436.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/299/12/1429

Posted by lisan at 09:32 AM | Comments (0)

March 25, 2008

Max Planck Institute: Comparative analysis of mortality patterns

"Regularities and Deviations in Mortality Trends of the Developed World."

Posted by nebarr at 09:34 AM | Comments (0)

U-M Retirement Research Newsletter - 2008

Resources on key findings in health and disability.

Posted by nebarr at 09:21 AM | Comments (0)

March 24, 2008

Food Stamps and Obesity: What Do We Know?

Food Stamps and Obesity: What Do We Know?
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

Results from reviewed studies indicate that for most participants in the Food Stamp Program—children, nonelderly men, and the elderly—use of food stamp benefits does not result in an increase in either Body Mass Index (BMI) or the likelihood of being overweight or obese. However, for nonelderly women, who account for 28 percent of the food stamp caseload, some evidence suggests that participation in the Food Stamp Program may increase BMI and the probability of obesity.

Posted by yanfu at 02:13 PM | Comments (0)

March 18, 2008

Sexual Behavior of Single Adult American Women

Source: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health (via Guttmacher Institute)

One-third of American women aged 20–44 are single, and nine in 10 of these women are sexually experienced, according to “Sexual Behavior of Single Adult American Women,? by Laura Duberstein Lindberg et al., published in the March 2008 issue of Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. The median age at first marriage rose from 22.0 in 1980 to 25.3 years in 2002.

Posted by yanfu at 09:15 AM | Comments (0)

March 13, 2008

PBS documentaries examine disparities in health, wellness

The School of Public Health and the Washtenaw County Department of Public Health are hosting several events to preview the new PBS documentary, "Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making Us Sick?"

http://www.ur.umich.edu/0708/Mar03_08/04.php

Posted by lisan at 09:07 PM | Comments (0)

Life expectancy rises for the educated; the less-educated reap no benefit

It's no secret that over the last few decades, life expectancy in the United States has been rising. However, recent data shows that not everyone has benefited from this encouraging trend.

Health Affairs, March/April 2008, Volume 27, Number 2
“The Gap Gets Bigger: Changes in Mortality and Life Expectancy, by Education, 1981-2000?

More in the Special Issue on Disparitiesfrom the journal Health Affairs.

Posted by yanfu at 09:43 AM | Comments (0)

March 11, 2008

U-M's Center for Global Health Announces Four Public Lectures

See calendar.

Posted by nebarr at 07:28 AM | Comments (0)

March 07, 2008

New Report Provides Substance Use and Mental Health Information for Each State

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (HHS)

A new report providing analyses of substance use and mental health patterns occurring in each state reveals that there are wide variations among the states in problems like illicit drug use and underage drinking, but that no state was immune from these problems. For example, past month use of alcohol among persons aged 12 to 20 (underage use of alcohol) ranged from a low of 21.5 percent in Utah to a high of 38.3 percent in Vermont. Yet Utah had the highest level of people age 18 or older reporting serious psychological distress in the past year (14.4 percent), while Hawaii had the lowest level (8.8 percent).

Posted by yanfu at 03:32 PM | Comments (0)

March 04, 2008

Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women

The World Health Organization (WHO) has published a report WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. This report presents initial results based on interviews with 24 000 women. The report concludes with 15 recommendations to strengthen national commitment and action on violence against women.

Posted by yanfu at 02:53 PM | Comments (0)

Statistics: State Profiles: HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

The 2007 NCHHSTP State Profiles include statistical and other information on HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB for all 50 states and Washington, District of Columbia, as of September 2007. They also include descriptions of prevention and control programs supported by CDC and state public health officials.

Source: CDC

Posted by yanfu at 02:51 PM | Comments (0)

March 03, 2008

CDC Study Reveals Adults May Not Get Enough Rest or Sleep

About 10 percent of adults report not getting enough rest or sleep every day in the past month, according to a new four-state study released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention′s (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Perceived Insufficient Rest or Sleep — Four States, 2006

Posted by yanfu at 02:57 PM | Comments (0)

Health and Prisoner Reentry

from Urban Institute
Author(s): Kamala Mallik-Kane, Christy Visher

More than 8 in 10 returning prisoners have chronic physical, mental, or substance abuse conditions. This research report demonstrates how each of these health conditions is associated with distinct reentry challenges and service needs.

Full Paper


Posted by yanfu at 02:55 PM | Comments (0)

February 29, 2008

Hiding in Plain Sight: The Role of Contraception in Preventing HIV

Source: Guttmacher Policy Review

Integrating the provision of voluntary contraceptive services into programs where HIV-positive women are going for HIV-related treatment is essential to make U.S. efforts to combat the AIDS epidemic more effective, according to a new Guttmacher Institute policy analysis. Unintended pregnancy prevention is a critical, but largely overlooked, component of any prevention strategy since so many HIV-positive women wish to delay or prevent pregnancy, the analysis finds.

Women of reproductive age comprise more than half of the 33 million people living with HIV around the world. But currently, programs designed to help prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child only reach about one in 10 eligible women in poor countries. Meanwhile, a large number of women in these programs say that their pregnancies were unintended.

Full Paper

Posted by yanfu at 02:38 PM | Comments (0)

February 28, 2008

Overcoming Obstacles to Health

Report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to the Commission to Build a Healthier America
February 2008
University of California, San Francisco Center on Social Disparities in Health
Paula Braveman, M.D., M.P.H. ; Susan Egerter, Ph.D.

Available online as PDF file

Posted by yanfu at 02:42 PM | Comments (0)

February 26, 2008

The Fall and Rise of US Inequities in Premature Mortality: 1960-2002

Nancy Krieger*, David H. Rehkopf, Jarvis T. Chen, Pamela D. Waterman, Enrico Marcelli¤b, Malinda Kennedy

PLoS Med 5(2) February 2008: e46.doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050046

Background: Debates exist as to whether, as overall population health improves, the absolute and relative magnitude of income- and race/ethnicity-related health disparities necessarily increase - or decrease. We accordingly decided to test the hypothesis that health inequities widen-or shrink-in a context of declining mortality rates, by examining annual US mortality data over a 42 year period.

Posted by yanfu at 02:28 PM | Comments (0)