November 16, 2006
I just heard some talking head on NPR use the "is, is" construction again. That's a new (and rather irritating) piece of English syntax that reanalyzes pseudo-clefts and generates a spurious reduplication.
I suppose that, as a syntactician, I ought to greet such innovations in my native tongue with delight; but frankly this one irritates me even more than uses of intensifier so, or as far as.. without a bookend. Just getting curmudgeonly, I guess.
I hear it a lot on NPR, but mostly when I'm driving, it seems, so I can't write them down. Here are some examples collected last year [commas interpolated]:
(1) The difference is, is that it's not coming from the top. ('On the Media' 12-10-05)
(2) But the reality of it is, is that ... ('Marketplace' segment on 'Morning Edition' 11-25-05)
(3) The situation was, is that my mom died ... ('Smart Money' 11-6-05)
(4) The problem is, is that the traditional Haitian government ... ('All Things Considered' 11-25-05)
I've never encountered this in writing; it seems to be strictly oral, which is what you would expect for a nascent syntactic rule. I have a theory about how it developed -- i.e, I thought of an explanation, but I haven't made any attempt to search the literature, so I don't know if it's the same as or different from anybody else's explanation.
It seems to me that these come from the pseudo-cleft rule, or rather from a misunderstanding of the pseudo-cleft rule. You remember cleft and pseudo-cleft, right? As Fillmore
puts it, "Instances of cleavage have IT in front; instances of pseudo-cleavage have WHAT in front."
Any of the sentences above could have been pseudo-clefts with two is's in a row:
(1a) What the difference is is that it's not coming from the top.
This has one is isolated at the end of the What clause, before the trace formed by Wh-movement, followed immediately after the trace by a second is serving as the fulcrum of cleavage.
They could also have been simple uncleft sentences, with only one is:
(1b) The difference is that it's not coming from the top.
It seems to me that speakers that use the "is, is" construction re-interpret the double is as a constituent, a marker for some kind of cleavage (instead of a syntactic accident), and drop the What that is the real marker -- after all, it doesn't add any information to (1a), as (1b) shows. (I suppose someone who cared more than I do could use this as an argument against the reality of traces.)
Why keep the double is at all, then? For the same reason people use whom nowadays: to appear authoritative. I guess that's what irritates me about it.
November 11, 2006
The way to make a name in linguistics is to make a name in linguistics
Háj Ross is (quite correctly) blamed for many of the most egregious, but Robin Lakoff is -- as the post intimates, and as Háj will be among the first to agree -- the Onlie Begetter. Who can forget her
"The Logic of Politeness, or Minding Your P's and Q's"?Not only a pun on logical notation, but also a takeoff on Grice at the same time, and both à propos her topic. Just brilliant.
Andy Rogers (always a nomenclatural extremist) went so far as to name the rule he wrote his dissertation about -- a strange species of Raising with certain verbs like seem and a complementizer like that copied instead of moved the downstairs Su, producing such sentences as
- Mary seems like she gets along with everybody.
I'm guilty of a few of these, too, sometimes to excess (mea culpa, mea culpa, ...). The first few CLS papers I wrote were entitled
- "any Questions?" (about questions containing any, natch)
- "Generic to a Fault" (from the fixed phrase generous to a fault and using a sort of chemical valence -ic/-ous suffix to get to a false etymology of generic, my own thesis topic)
- "Tracking the Generic Toad" (a phonological transformation of cracking the genetic code, a then-hot phrase).
Ah, youth. Ah, linguists.