April 25, 2011
User maybe-not-contributed content
Curiouser and curiouser.
Last week Jonathan Tasini, a free-lance writer, filed a lawsuit on behalf of himself and other bloggers who contributed -- well maybe not contributed -- their work to the Huffington Post site. His complaint is that Huffington Post sold itself to AOL for $315 million and did not share any of the gain with the volunteer -- well maybe not volunteer -- writers.
The lawsuit complaint makes fun reading, as these things go.
The main gripe (other than class warfare: it's unfair!) seems to be that HuffPo "lured" (paragraph 2) writers to contribute their work not for payment but for "exposure (visibility, promotion and distribution)", yet did not provide "a real and accurate measure of exposure" (paragraph 103). However, as far as I can see, there is no claim that HuffPo ever told its writers that HuffPo would not be earning revenue, nor a promise that it would provide any page view or other web analytic data.
How deceived was Tasini? He's no innocent. In fact, he volunteers (oops! there's that word again) in the complaint that he runs his own web site, that he posts articles to it written by volunteers, and that he earned revenue from the web site (paragraph 15). And he was the lead plaintiff in the famous (successful) lawsuit against the New York Times when it tried to resell freelance writer content to digital outlets (not authorized in its original contracts with the writers). And, gosh, though he was "lured" into writing for the HuffPo, and was "deceived" into thinking it was a "free forum for ideas", he didn't notice that they sold ads and were making money during the several years in which he contributed 216 articles to the site. That's a pretty powerful fog of deception! Maybe Arianna Huffington should work for the CIA.
April 21, 2011
New article characterizing crowdsourcing on the web
There is an article in the new issue of CACM on "Crowdsourcing systems on the World-Wide Web", by Anhai Doan, Raghu Ramakrishnan, and Alon Y. Halevy. In it they offer a definition of crowdsourcing systems, characterize them along nine dimensions, and discuss some of the dimensions as challenges.
It's a useful review article, with many examples and a good bibliography. The characterization in nine dimensions is clear and I think mostly useful.
I'm particularly pleased to see that they have given prominent attention to the incentive-centered design issues on which I (and this blog) have focused for years. Indeed, they define crowdsourcing systems in terms of four incentive problems that must be solved (distinguishing them from, say, crowd management systems that only address three of the questions). They define crowdsourcing as "A system that enlists humans to help solve a problem defined by the system owners, if in doing so it addresses four fundamental challenges:
- How to recruit and retain users?
- What contributions can users make?
- How to combine user contributions to solve the target problems?
- How to evaluate users and their contributions?
The first and second are the "getting stuff in" (contribution) problem about which I write. How to get people to make effort to contribute something to the good of others? The fourth is the quality incentive problem, which I usually separate into "getting good stuff in" (positive quality), and "keeping bad stuff out".